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梯级水电开发对河道减脱水的影响—以岷江上游为例
Alternative TitleThe impacts of cascade hydropower development on river discontinuous flow in the upper reaches of Minjiang River
Language中文
穆羽
Thesis Advisor徐佩
2015
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword岷江上游 梯级水电开发 河道减脱水 水资源安全
Abstract水电开发带来的河流生态环境问题一直受到广泛关注。随着社会经济的快速发展,能源需求不断增加,大规模、高强度的梯级水电开发现象十分普遍,由此引发的河流生态环境担忧也日趋突出。流域水电开发改变了河流的基本形态和水文情势,其引起的河道减脱水现象将直接影响河流健康和水资源安全。本研究以四川省岷江上游地区为例,拟通过探讨梯级水电开发下的河道减脱水现象、特征及其与水电站间的关系等,以期为梯级水电站合理布局和运行管理提供科学依据,为梯级水电开发环境影响评价和河流生态系统保护与修复提供参考。 本研究在实地调查和资料收集的基础上,分析了岷江上游水电开发的基本类型、开发程度及时空格局;选择了岷江上游干流、一级支流和二级支流上受水电站影响的典型河段,利用遥感解译与实地调查相结合的手段,建立了河道减脱水评价指标,据此分析岷江上游河道减脱水的时空特征;最后从水电站的不同坝型、装机容量和调节方式等方面分析了水电站与河道减脱水的关系,并从梯级电站群的不同坝址组合和不同调节性能角度讨论了不同梯级水电开发模式对河道减脱水的影响,初步探索了梯级水电开发对河道减脱水的影响机制。得出的主要结论如下: (1)岷江上游的水电站类型以小型电站为主,中小型水电站主要分布于岷江一、二级支流上,二级支流电站数最多;水电开发方式以引水式开发为主;从水电站的坝型数量上看,低闸引水式电站>底格栏栅式电站>滚水坝式电站>无坝式电站>高坝式电站,其中一级支流主要以低闸引水式为主,底格栏栅式电站主要分布在二级支流。 (2)杂谷脑河干流是岷江一级支流梯级水电开发程度最高的河流;从流域尺度上看,黑水河流域的梯级开发数量和梯级开发率均为最高,成为岷江上游梯级开发最为严重的流域,其次是杂谷脑河流域;岷江上游流域的水电开发总体上呈现开发时间早、周期长、高强度和全覆盖的时空特征。干流和一级支流总体上均呈现水电开发密度下游河段明显高于中上游河段。 (3)利用NDVI值对遥感影像进行正常水体河道、减水河道和脱水河道分类得到了较好结果。分别基于高分遥感数据和断面实测数据构建判断及评价水电开发下河道减脱水指标:正常比N、减水比R、脱水比D、裸露比K和对照比L。 (4)水电站主要在枯水期引致河道减脱水,梯级水电开发造成了大面积的河道减脱水现象。不同级别流域上,二级支流减脱水程度比干流和一级支流更加严重;同一级别流域中,上游的减脱水程度比中下游更严重。对水电站而言,距坝址距离越远受影响河道的减脱水情况越小。 (5)电站的不同类型、不同调节性能对河道减脱水的影响有着显著的差异,而电站的装机容量与河道减脱水相关关系不显著。从坝型上看,底格栏栅式电站导致电站的减脱水情况最严重,其次是拦河坝式电站,最后是低闸引水式电站。岷江上游的水电开发以引水式开发为主,基于成本等因素考虑,小型支流多为底格栏栅式电站且缺乏统一调度,导致本来水量不多的小型支流出现大面积断流,河道泥沙淤积、生态环境恶化。 (6)不同水电梯级开发模式对河道减脱水的影响有所差别。由低格栏栅式电站组合成的梯级电站群对河道减脱水产生的影响最为严重,其脱水比最高,正常比最低;拦河坝式电站和低格栏栅式电站组成的梯级电站群影响次之;低闸引水式电站组合成的梯级电站群造成的影响相对最小。有“龙头水库”调节的梯级水电群一定程度上能减轻河道减脱水现象,其河道整体减脱水程度小于无“龙头水库”调节的梯级水电群。
Other AbstractThe ecological and environmental problems induced by hydropower development have always received great attention. With the rapid development of economy and the increasing energy demand, the phenomenon of large-scale and high intensity cascade hydropower development is very commen, which has increasing the river ecological and environmental concerns. Hydropower development activities have changed the morphology and the hydrological regimes of natural rivers, the phenomenon of river discontinuity will impact river health and water security directly. The main purpose of this research was to study the characteristics of river discontinuity caused by cascade hydropower development in the upper reaches of Minjiang river, where the hydropower development activities are particularly intense. The hydropower development type, the hydropower development degree, as well as it’s spatial and temporal patterns were be assessed firstly based on the field survey. Secondly, I choosed the typical river section of main stream and tributaries affected by hydropower stations, and built an evaluation index system to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of river discontinuity. Then, I analyzed the relationship between river discontinuity and some basical indicators of hydropower station, such as the dam type, the installed capacity, and the regulation performance etc. Finally, through the different combination of dam type and different regulation performance of hydropower plants, I discussed how different cascade hydropower development modes influence the river discontinuity. The main results were as follows. (1) The main type of hydropower plants in study area is small hydropower plants, which mainly located on the first and second tributary of Minjiang. Diversion type development is the main hydropower development way in study area. The main hydropower dam types are as follow: Low gate diversion dam> bottom grid fencing dam > overflow dam > no dam> large dam. Low gate diversion dams mainly located on the first tributary of Minjiang, and the bottom grid fencing dams mainly located on the second tributary of Minjiang. (2) The cascade hydropower development degree of Zagunao river is the highest among the first tributaries of Minjiang river. The Heishui river basin is the most seriously developed basin, with the most hydropower stations and the highest cascade development degree among all Sub basins of Minjiang. The spatial and temporal characteristics of hydropower development in study area can be summarized as developed early, long cycle, high intense and all tributaries covered. The hydropower development density of downstreams is much higher than that of upstreams. (3) I choosed NDVI as the classification indicator of remote sensing data, and achieved good results. Then, I built some evaluation indicators namely normal river ratio N, reduced river ratio R, dewatered river ratio D, bare riverbed ratio K, and contrast river ratio L, which are both based on field investigation data and high spatial resolution data. (4)The phenomenon of river discontinuity caused by hydropower development mainly appears at low water period. Cascade hydropower development has induced serious discontinuity phenomenon. The river discontinuity on second tributary of Minjiang is much more serious than that of main stream and other level of tributaries. Discontinuity phenomenon on downstreams is much higher than that of upstreams in terms of the same river level. The serious level of discontinuity has a decreasing tendency with the increase of distance from the dam site. (5) There is an significant difference between hydropower plant type, hydropower regulation performance,and the phenomenon of discontinuity. The relationship between the installed capacity and discontinuity is not obvious. Bottom grid fencing dam has induced the most serious river discontinuity phenomenon, followed by overflow dam and low gate diversion dam.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/14143
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
穆羽. 梯级水电开发对河道减脱水的影响—以岷江上游为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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