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民族地区水库移民生计资本与生计策略研究——以凉山彝族自治州为例
Alternative TitleResearch on the Livelihood Capital and Livelihood Strategies of Reservoir Resettlements in Ethnic Areas:A Case of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture
Language中文
刘运伟
Thesis Advisor方一平
2015
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline人文地理学
Keyword水库移民 可持续生计 生计资本 生计策略 凉山州
Abstract民族地区水电资源开发加速,由此产生的水库移民数量不断增加。水库移民的长远生计问题是关系到社会和谐稳定的大问题。本文以四川省凉山彝族自治州(凉山州)为研究区域,选择溪洛渡、锦屏、官地、大桥水库的295户水库移民样本为研究对象,在借鉴英国国际开发署(DFID)的可持续生计分析框架的基础上,构建水库移民可持续生计分析框架与生计资本评价指标体系。首先对凉山州水库移民生计资本进行了深入分析;然后分析了凉山州水库移民的生计策略情况,并在此基础上对水库移民的生计资本与生计策略两者之间的量化关系展开深入研究,最后为实现凉山州水库移民可持续生计提出了相关建议。主要研究结论如下: 主要研究结论如下: (1)移民搬迁导致水库移民的生计资本发生了很大变化。在五项生计资本中,变化最大、对水库移民长远生计影响最大的莫过于人力资本、自然资本、金融资本的变化。人力资本方面,移民搬迁为水库移民家庭提高家庭成员的受教育水平起了积极作用,并且这种积极的影响会随着时间的推移逐渐凸显。自然资本方面,移民搬迁使水库移民家庭的耕地资源数量明显减少、耕地质量明显下降、土地结构类型单一,导致水库移民的农业生产很难在短期内恢复到移民前的水平。这也是造成水库移民产生长远生计问题的主要原因。由于家庭生产活动在短期内无法恢复到移民前的水平,导致家庭收入的减少,加上移民后的生活成本明显提高,这使得水库移民的金融资本状况出现了明显的恶化。 (2)中型、小型水利水电项目水库移民的生计资本受到的影响要明显大于巨型、大型水利水电项目的水库移民。因为巨型、大型水利水电项目社会影响大、政府重视、经费充足,在移民的安置过程中往往会建立强有力的协调结构并给予相对较高的补偿标准。 (3)与汉族水库移民相比,少数民族水库移民的移民搬迁要付出更高的成本,其长远生计面临更多的问题,需要特别重视。少数民族水库移民家庭人口规模较大,在移民后由于耕地数量的减少,产生了较多农业剩余劳动力需要转移。但由于少数民族水库移民不仅文化程度低、职业技能匮乏,甚至有部分连普通话都听不懂,使得他们在移民后想融入当地的生活都很难,更不用说外出务工谋生了。 (4)水库移民在耕地数量减少的情况下,保持对农业生计活动的强烈依赖是造成其生计困难的主要原因。不管是何种类型水利水电项目的水库移民,还是不同民族水库移民,其最主要的生计策略类型都是纯农业户和农业兼业户。特别是少数民族水库移民家庭具体生计活动类型较少,生计多样性指数小,抵御生计风险的能力较弱。 (5)水库移民生计资本与生计策略的量化关系研究表明,水库移民拥有的人力资本、社会资本、金融资本越大,成为纯农业户的可能性越小。随着自然资本的增大,水库移民成为纯农业户的概率越大;随着人力资本的增大,水库移民成为非农业兼业户和非农业户的概率越大;随着金融资本的增大,水库移民成为农业兼业户和非农业兼业户的概率越大。
Other AbstractWith the development of hydropower resources in ethnic area, the number of reservoir resettlement is accelerating. The long-term livelihood of the reservoir resettlement is a big problem related to social harmony and stability. This paper takes Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province as the study area, and selects the 295 household in the sample of Xiluodu, Jinping, Guandi, Daqiao as the research object. First of all, it gives a deep analysis of the livelihood capital and livelihood strategies of Liangshan reservoir resettlement, and the quantitative relationships between them based on this research, which finally puts forward some suggestions for the realization of Liangshan reservoir resettlement sustainable livelihood. The main conclusions are as follows: (3)Comparing with the Han immigration, the minority of reservoir resettlements pay more higher cost, we should pay more attention to them because of the long-term livelihood face more problems. The minority reservoir immigrants with huge population scale. A great deal of rural labor force needs to be transferred due to the decrease of cultivated land. While the minority of reservoir resettlements have low cultural quality and lack of professional skills, even some of them can't understand mandarin. Resulting in the difficulty to integrate into local life, let alone to be a migrant worker to make a living. (4) In the case of the number of arable land decreasing, the main reason of livelihood difficulty is keeping a strong dependency upon the agricultural livelihood activities. The reservoir resettlements of different types of water resources and hydropower projects, or the reservoir resettlements of different ethnic, their main livelihoods strategy types are pure agricultural and main agricultural. The minority reservoir resettlement families have less specific livelihoods activity type, small livelihood diversity index. And their ability to resist livelihood risk is weak.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/14179
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘运伟. 民族地区水库移民生计资本与生计策略研究——以凉山彝族自治州为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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