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城镇化进程中四川省山丘区农村妇女就业转移研究
Alternative TitleThe Employment Transfer of Rural Female Laborers in the Mountainous and Upland Areas of Sichuan in the Urbanization Process
Language中文
谢芳婷
Thesis Advisor刘邵权
2015
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline人文地理学
Keyword城镇化 农村女性 就业转移 动态影响因素 山丘区
Abstract农村女性作为劳动力的重要组成部分和家庭决策的重要参与者,其就业转移不仅有利于农村女性经济、社会地位的提高,而且对农村家庭的整体转移起着举足轻重的作用,是最终割断进城农民与农村社会联系,促进农民向市民化转变,推动城镇化的发展,提升城镇化质量的关键。但是我国目前山丘区城镇化发展和农村女性劳动力就业转移面临着以下问题:尽管目前我国西部山区的城镇化进程也在加快,但其城镇化水平仍远低于全国平均水平,已成为我国城镇化建设的重点和难点;其次,山丘区农村劳动力剩余与城市“民工荒”矛盾突出;再次,由于受到交通闭塞、思想封闭等因素影响,山丘区农村女性就业转移明显滞后于男性,并且其转移难度较平原地区更大。因而,研究山丘区城镇化与农村劳动力就业转移关系、山丘区农村剩余劳动力时空态势、山丘区农村女性就业转移动态机制具有重要的理论和现实意义。 本研究在对已有文献系统综述的前提下,从学科交叉角度出发,以农村劳动力就业转移、社会性别、社会排斥以及计量经济学的相关理论和方法为主轴,选取四川省山丘区典型样本县、抽样调查农户的农村劳动力两种不同尺度的研究单元,以2004年、2007年、2011年为时间节点,对该地区农村劳动力就业转移进行动态追踪研究。论文对就业转移的内容也进行了扩展,除了考虑农村女性非农就业外,还考虑兼业、就业转移时间、就业转移地点、就业转移行业。通过对四川省山丘区典型样本县城镇化水平及农村劳动力就业转移时空差异的剖析、格兰杰因果关系检验,揭示四川省山丘区城镇化与农村劳动力就业转移关系。运用“工日法”测算典型样本县剩余劳动力时空差异以及供给潜力。通过对比分析揭示不同尺度单元的山区农村女性就业转移的差异和变化规律;在此基础上从个人、家庭、社区、自然环境、社会网络等综合角度出发,利用二项和多分类Logistic回归模型探究其对山丘区农村女性就业转移的动态影响。最后针对山丘区实际情况提出促进农村女性就业转移以及区域可持续发展的对策建议。主要结论有: (1)四川省山丘区城镇化、农村劳动力就业转移区域差异明显。丘陵县城镇化以及农村劳动力就业转移态势优于山地县,高城镇化率县优于中、低城镇化率县。四川省山丘区城镇化、产业结构和农村劳动力就业转移存在较为明显的因果关系,并且三产比重变化与农村劳动力就业转移的相互影响时间相对较长。 (2)剩余劳动力数量和比例总体呈现出现增加后减少的趋势,但是总体上还存在较大数量的剩余劳动力,并且主要以女性为主。丘陵县、城镇化水平较高区域剩余劳动力的转移速度相对较快。 (3)论文从年龄、教育、健康状态三方面分析了农村妇女非农劳动力和兼业劳动力结构变化特征,结果显示:36-45岁年龄段、初中教育农村妇女非农就业和兼业增幅最大,农村女性健康状态变化不大。农村女性劳动力非农就业、兼业、就业地点、就业时间、就业行业特征具有一定特征规律:①女性非农和兼业数量明显低于男性;2004-2011年,女性非农就业比重增长,女性兼业比重变化不大,而男性兼业比重呈下降趋势;②非农和兼业就业时间都以常年的比重最多,2004-2011年,女性长时间非农就业和兼业增长幅度大于男性;③从流出地视角来看,女性比男性更倾向于远距离非农就业、就近兼业;但2004-2011年,就近就业比例增多;从流入地视角来看,不同就业地点之间,工资、提供住房、提供伙食都存在显著差异,并且2004-2011年不同就业地之间的差异在增大,男性的差异大于女性。④女性中非农就业为第三产业的比重高于男性; 2004-2011年女性兼业行业逐渐变化,男性兼业行业比重最高一直是建筑业和工矿业;⑤山区村和丘陵村,不同城镇化水平村之间,农村妇女就业转移都显示出较大区域差异。 (4)个人、家庭、社区、自然环境以及社会网络对山丘区农村女性就业转移都具有一定动态影响。①教育、健康、未婚、配偶从事非农就业、家中无65岁以上老人和6岁以下小孩、城镇化、电话费对女性非农就业有促进作用,而年龄、家庭规模、耕地面积、到乡镇时间、海拔、家中无村干部对女性非农就业具有负向作用;其中家庭特征变量随时间变化影响增强,个人特征和社区特征变量的影响逐渐减弱;对男性和女性参与非农就业影响具有显著差异的变量主要是家庭和自然地理环境特征。②兼业影响因素计量分析(多项Logistic模型)则揭示了二项Logistic模型分析所掩盖的一些信息:如婚姻、家中无65岁以上老人或6岁以下小孩、到乡镇时间等变量对兼业和纯非农就业都具有不同影响。③受教育程度高、配偶从事非农就业、家中无65岁以上老人、到乡镇时间越长、城镇化水平较高、地形起伏度较高、提供住宿时,女性倾向于长时间非农就业;而年龄越大、家中劳动力数量增加、村收入较高、海拔较高、家中无党员时,女性倾向于短时间非农就业。④未婚女性、配偶从事纯非农就业、家中无65岁以上老人或6岁以下小孩或小学生、到乡镇时间与女性远距离非农就业正相关;年龄、配偶从事兼业、耕地面积、村收入、村企业、城镇化、海拔、不提供住宿与女性近非农就业正相关;起伏度较大时,女性倾向于就业地点呈两极分化。⑤年龄增大、受教育程度较高、电话费开支大时,女性非农就业倾向于从事商贸业、教师等技术性行业;当配偶从事纯非农就业时,女性都倾向于从事制造业;家中耕地面积较多时,女性倾向于从事兼业行业;村收入较高、提供伙食时,女性倾向于从事制造业、交通运输、家政、餐饮业;乡镇时间、海拔、家中无村干部对交通运输、家政、餐饮业的参与存在负向影响,城镇化与交通运输、家政、餐饮业等具有正向关系。⑥随时间变化,这些变量对女性就业转移状况的影响也有所变化,大部分变量对男性就业转移也具有较相似的影响,并且女性受限制的因素多余男性。对就业转移状况的影响存在较大相别差异的变量主要集中在家庭特征中。 (5)应对山丘区农村女性就业转移的现存问题,促进山丘区社会经济可持续发展提出以下对策建议:加强基础教育的投入,发展职业教育;发展多元化的就地转移渠道和托幼养老组织;建立健全就业信息服务网络;加强与农村女性劳动力非农就业配套的基础设施建设;改革、完善就业环境和各种社会制度。
Other AbstractThe employment transfer of rural females, an important participant in the labor force and household decision-making, not only helps to improve rural females’ economic and social status, but also plays a significant role in the overall transfer of rural households. What is more, the employment transfer of rural females is the key to cut the ties between rural migrant and rural social, to promote the transition of farmers to citizens, to improve the development of urbanization, and to enhance the quality of urbanization. However, the urbanization development and employment transfer of rural females in the mountainous and upland areas are faced with the following problems. First, although the process of urbanization is accelerating in mountainous and upland areas of the West, its urbanization level is still far behind the national average. This becomes an important and difficult part of urbanization construction in China. Second, there are more than 100 million rural laborers need transferring into off-farm sector, while many cities and even the Midwest show the signs of “labor shortage”. Third, due to the blocking traffic, outdated ideological concepts and other factors, the employment transfer of rural females lags far behind that of rural males, and it is more difficult in the mountainous and upland areas than in the plain areas. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to study the relationship between urbanization and employment transfer of rural laborers, to clear the spatial and temporal situation of rural surplus laborers, and to analyze the dynamic mechanism of rural females employment transfer in the mountainous and upland areas. On the basis of a systematic review of the existing literature, starting from the point of interdisciplinary, taking the theories and methods of rural laborers’ employment transfer, social gender, social exclusion, and econometrics as the spindle, choosing the typical sample county and rural laborers from sample household survey in the mountainous and upland areas of Sichuan as two kinds of research unit with different scale, taking 2004, 2007, 2011 as the time node, this study made a dynamic tracking analysis of rural females’ employment transfer. The content of employment transfer was also extended in this dissertation. In addition to off-farm employment of rural females, the research took working time, employment location, and employment industry into account. Through the analysis of spatial and temporal differences of urbanization and rural laborers’ employment transfer in the typical sample county in the mountainous and upland areas of Sichuan, applying Grainger Causality Test method, the study revealed the relationship between urbanization and rural laborers’ employment transfer in the study region. Using “Man-Day” method, the research calculated the number of surplus labor force and its supply potential and analyzed their temporal and spatial variation in the typical sample county. Through the comparison of rural females’ employment transfer in different groups, this paper disclosed its change law and temporal and spatial differences. Base on this, from the comprehensive view of individual, family, community, natural environment, and social network characteristics, employing binary and multinomial logistic regression models, the study explored the dynamic effect of those characteristics on rural females’ employment transfer in the mountainous and upland areas. At last, the research put forward the countermeasures and suggestions to promote rural females’ employment transfer and regional sustainable development according to the actual situation in the mountainous and upland areas. The conclusions are as follows: (1) There were obvious spatial and temporal variation of urbanization and rural laborers’ employment transfer. The situation and trend of urbanization and rural laborers’ employment transfer were better in upland counties than in mountainous counties.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/14180
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
谢芳婷. 城镇化进程中四川省山丘区农村妇女就业转移研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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