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我国工业化进程与工业生态效率的关系研究
Alternative TitleStudies on the Relationship between Industrialization and Eco-efficiency of Industry in China
Language中文
阎晓
Thesis Advisor方一平
2015
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline人文地理学
Keyword工业化进程 工业生态效率 生态化发展 关系
Abstract随着工业化的快速推进,我国资源环境问题日益加剧,走社会经济与资源环境兼顾的生态化道路成为未来我国工业发展的必然选择。工业生态学认为,工业生态化发展的核心与重要标度是工业生态效率。在此背景下,本文以工业化进程与工业生态效率之间的关系为研究主题,以“方法构建-关系分析-原因解析-策略提出”为研究主线,从国家、省域和城市三个层面对我国工业化进程中工业生态效率的变化趋势和特征展开分析,探究工业化进程中导致工业生态效率变化的关键因素,力求为我国工业生态化发展提供思路和依据。研究主要结论如下: (1)工业生态效率定量评价模型构建。综合考虑工业系统的物质消耗和废物排放两个方面,构建基于能值的工业生态效率定量测度模型。该模型具有三个特点,一是用系统思维看待工业活动,注重工业系统的输入端和输出端;二是强调工业废水和废气之所以会对环境产生影响是由于其中的有毒有害物质,而非水和气本身;三是引入能值理论,克服了不同度量单位指标难以直接相加的困难。 (2)我国工业化进程与工业生态效率的关系。从国家层面看,随着工业化水平的提高,工业生态效率不断提高,二者基本呈线性关系。从省域层面看,工业化进程中工业生态效率的变化趋势可归纳为两种模式。第一种模式为整个工业化进程中工业生态效率不断上升;第二种模式为工业生态效率在工业化初期快速上升,在工业化中期(特别是工业化中期后半段)缓慢增长或趋于停滞,工业化后期(特别是工业化后期后半段)再次步入快速上升轨道。两种模式的根本差异在于工业化中期(特别是工业化中期后半段)工业生态效率的走势发生分异。就典型山地城市而言,重庆和贵阳工业生态效率随工业化水平变化的轨迹特征与第一种模式基本相符;而昆明则与第二种模式类似。 (3)工业化进程中影响工业生态效率的主要因素。就全国层面而言,工业结构演变、技术进步及环境政策规制因素对提高我国工业生态效率有显著正向作用,对物质消耗强度和废物排放强度有显著负向作用。就省域层面而言,环境政策规制对工业生态效率的提高起显著正向作用;全员劳动生产率上升在大多数地区对工业生态效率具有较显著的提高作用;但工业结构演变和科技创新是多数类型区工业生态效率提高过程中的短板所在。就典型山地城市而言,全员劳动生产率与工业生态效率显著正相关,是影响工业生态效率的主要因素;高技术产业占比对提高贵阳工业生态效率起到一定的正向作用;科技创新对重庆工业生态效率具有较为显著的正向推动作用;环保投资对重庆和贵阳工业生态效率的提高具有较为显著的正向作用,但在昆明影响不显著。 鉴于上述研究结果,我国应以整体性、区域性和多元化原则为指导,从调整工业结构、提高技术水平和科技创新能力、提高空间集聚度、注重市场作用、发挥政府调控作用、培养人力资源素养等方面着手,提高工业生态效率,进而推动我国工业生态化发展。
Other AbstractWith the rapid advance of industrialization, resources and environment problems have become increasingly serious in China. This means that the ecological development mode, which considers both the social economic efficiency and the ecological environmental efficiency, is an inevitable choice for China in the future. According to the Industrial Ecology, eco-efficiency is the core and measurement of industrial ecological development. Against these backgrounds, this thesis studies on the relationship between industrialization and industrial eco-efficiency, taking “model establishment – relationship analysis – reason analysis – strategy proposition” as the main line. In specific, this thesis analyzes the changing trends and characteristics of industrial eco-efficiency, and explores the influencing factors of industrial eco-efficiency in the process of industrialization in China from the perspective of nation, province and city. The research reaches following three main conclusions, which are significant important for China to promote the industrial ecological development. (1) An emergy-based measurement model of industrial eco-efficiency has been built, which considers both material consumptions and waste emissions of industrial system. The model has three advantages: firstly, all of the industrial activities have been seen as a system; secondly, it makes clear that how waste water and waste gas put negative impact on the environment; and thirdly, this model solve the problem of conflicting measurement unit. (2) The relationship between industrialization and industrial eco-efficiency. From the national perspective, there is a linear relationship between the advance of industrialization and the improvement of industrial eco-efficiency. From the provincial perspective, the changing trend of industrial eco-efficiency in the process of industrialization can be summarized as two basic patterns. Firstly, the industrial eco-efficiency rises in the whole process of industrialization. Secondly, the industrial eco-efficiency rises rapidly in the early stage of industrialization, then grinds to a halt or slows down during the industrialization metaphase (especially the second half of industrialization metaphase). During the late industrialization stage (especially the second half of the late industrialization stage), the industrial eco-efficiency starts rising rapidly again. Essentially, the changing trends of industrial eco-efficiency during the second half of industrialization metaphase in these two patterns are obviously different. From the perspective of typical mountain cities, the trajectories of industrial eco-efficiency of Chongqing and Guiyang belong to the first pattern, while Kunming belongs to the second pattern. (3) The main influencing factors of industrial eco-efficiency during the industrialization process. From the national perspective, the industrial structure evolution, technological progress and environmental regulation policy have significant positive effect on the industrial eco-efficiency in China, while have significant negative effects on the material consumptions intensity and waste emissions intensity. From the provincial perspective, the environmental regulation policy plays an important positive role in industrial eco-efficiency increasing and the overall labor productivity improves the eco-efficiency of industry in most areas. However, the influences of industrial structure evolution and science and technology innovation are not apparent yet. From the perspective of typical mountain cities, there is a significant positive correlation between the overall labor productivity and industrial eco-efficiency. Meanwhile, high technology industry drives the industrial eco-efficiency of Guiyang up, and science and technology innovation is an important driving factor for the industrial eco-efficiency of Chongqing. Besides, environmental protection investment has obvious positive influences in Chongqing and Guiyang, but
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/15032
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
阎晓. 我国工业化进程与工业生态效率的关系研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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