IMHE OpenIR  > 山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
基于次声监测的泥石流定位与实时监控方法
Alternative TitleDebris flow positioning and real-time monitoring based on infrasound monitoring
Language中文
刘敦龙
Thesis Advisor韦方强
2015
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword泥石流 次声 预警 传感器阵列 实时定位
Abstract泥石流是山区中常见的一种突发性自然灾害,因其强大的侵蚀、搬运、堆积和冲击能力而具有极大的危害性。泥石流在形成和运动过程中可产生在空气中稳定传播的次声波,因其具有穿透力强和衰减弱的特点,已被应用于泥石流监测预警中。目前的泥石流次声报警设备虽然可在泥石流发生时发出警报,但极易受环境噪声干扰而产生频繁的误报,同时也无法判断在什么位置发生了泥石流,更无法判断泥石流运动的实时位置和到达危害对象的时间,从而制约了其在泥石流减灾中的应用。为了解决这些问题,本文首先分析了泥石流次声与环境背景噪声的相关特征,试验出了区分它们的关键特征参数,提出了泥石流次声信号识别方法,并研制出了相应的识别系统;其次,根据泥石流次声波在山地环境中的传播特性,构建了最佳的监测阵列,结合声达时间差,推导出了泥石流次声波源定位模型,并提出了泥石流次声波源实时定位与监控方法;然后,基于该方法,借助ArcGIS Engine平台,研制出了泥石流次声波源实时定位与监控系统;最后,通过集成泥石流次声信号识别系统和泥石流次声波源实时定位与监控系统,开发了基于次声监测的泥石流定位与实时监控系统,实现了泥石流运动路径的可视化定位与实时监控。通过以上研究,得到了以下结论和研究成果: 1. 提出了采用单片机和上位机相结合的方式进行泥石流次声信号监测预警的思路,研制了泥石流次声信号采集、传输、实时接收与处理综合系统。泥石流次声信号采集与传输系统被部署在泥石流易发区域,构成多点同步监测网络(GPS卫星对各设备统一授时),完成泥石流次声信号的采集和远程传输等功能;泥石流次声信号实时接收与处理系统运行在服务器端,完成信号数据的接收、解析、展示、查询与分类入库等功能。这两个系统可为后续泥石流次声信号识别和泥石流运动路径的可视化定位与实时监控提供准确的数据源支撑和基础保障。 2. 通过大量采集与分析泥石流次声和常见环境背景噪声,得到了它们在频谱、声压、波形和持续时间等方面的关键特征,据此试验出了区分泥石流次声与这些环境背景噪声的关键特征参数。根据这些特征参数,提出了一种新型的泥石流次声信号识别方法,并据此研制出了相应的识别系统,解决了现有泥石流次声报警设备因无法排除噪声影响而频繁误报的问题。 3. 采用三点阵与近场模型的方式实施泥石流次声信号监测,并在泥石流频发的蒋家沟建设了监测试验阵列,以开展现场监测试验。这一监测阵列可为泥石流可视化定位与实时监控的实现提供基础保障。 4. 采用运算量小、实时性强且易实现的互功率谱相位时延估计方法,根据部署的泥石流次声监测阵列,推导出了基于声达时间差的泥石流次声波源定位模型,可得到泥石流当前位置的经纬度坐标。经次声模拟测试,该定位模型具有较高的定位精度,最大定位误差约8m,可很好的满足声源目标定位需求。 5. 基于泥石流次声信号监测与处理系统、泥石流次声信号识别系统、互功率谱相位时延估计算法以及泥石流次声波源定位模型,提出了泥石流次声波源实时定位与监控方法,并开发了泥石流次声波源实时定位与监控系统。经蒋家沟的现场应用验证了该系统对泥石流运动路径实时监控的有效性,约82%的定位误差在200m以内,89%的定位误差在500m以内,且最大定位误差在700m以内,实现了更为有效的泥石流次声监测预警。 本论文的创新性主要体现在: 1.采集并分析了泥石流次声与环境背景噪声的波谱特征,建立了环境背景噪声数据库,确定了区分环境背景噪声的关键特征参数,据此设计出了一种新型的泥石流次声信号识别方法,并开发了相应的识别系统,解决了泥石流次声报警器频繁误报的问题。 2. 根据所采用的监测阵列和时延估计方法,建立了泥石流次声波源定位模型。基于该定位模型,结合泥石流次声信号监测与处理系统的工作方式,建立了泥石流次声波源实时定位与监控方法,并开发了相应的监控系统,解决了泥石流次声报警无法确定灾害发生位置的问题,实现了灾害定位与实时监控。
Other AbstractDebris flows are a common type of sudden natural disaster in mountainous regions, with enormous hazardous nature of strong power of eroding, transporting, accumulating and alluvating. Low frequency infrasonic waves are emitted during the formation and movement of debris flows, which have been applied to the monitoring and early warning of debris flow for its characteristics of stable transmission in the air, strong penetrating power and weak attenuation. Although the alarm signals can be sent out by the current alarm equipment of debris flow infrasound, false messages are frequently raised under the interference of ambient noise. Moreover, the current alarm equipment is unable to sure the occurrence locations of debris flows, the real-time locations in the movement of debris flows and the arrival time of debris flows. These existing problems restrict the application of the infrasound monitoring in the disaster reduction of debris flow. To resolve these problems, firstly, the relative characteristics of debris flow infrasound and environmental interference noises were analyzed so as to test out the key characteristic parameters for distinguishing them in completing the development of the recognition system of debris flow infrasonic signals; secondly, according to the propagation characteristic of debris flow infrasound waves in mountainous environment, the best monitoring array were constructed for deriving debris flow infrasound source localization model combining with time difference of arrival of debris flow infrasound, to propose the real-time positioning and monitoring method of debris flow infrasound source; thirdly, based on the method and the platform of ArcGIS Engine, the real-time positioning and monitoring system of debris flow infrasound source was developed; finally, the recognition system of debris flow infrasonic signals and the real-time positioning and monitoring system of debris flow infrasound source were integrated to develop the debris flow positioning and real-time monitoring system based on infrasound monitoring for realizing the visual positioning and real-time monitoring of debris flow movement path. Based on the above research, some conclusions and achievements are as follows: 1. By the way of integrating SCM and upper computer, the idea of debris flow infrasound monitoring and early warning was proposed, and an integrated system for collecting, transmitting, real-time receiving and processing of debris flow infrasonic signals was developed. The collecting and transmitting systems were installed in the debris flow-prone region, constructing a network of multi-point synchronous monitoring (GPS provides time service to these systems), in completing the functions of infrasonic signal collecting and teletransmission. The real-time receiving and processing systems ran on the server side in completing the functions of signal receiving, analysis, display, inquiry and classified storage, etc. These two systems can provide accurate data source and basis assurance for the recognition of infrasonic signals and visual positioning and real-time monitoring of movement path. 2. By collecting and analyzing lots of debris flow infrasound signals and the common environmental interference noises, the key characteristics (e.g. frequency spectrum, sound pressure, waveform and duration, etc.) are obtained, and the key characteristic parameters to distinguish them were tested out. According to these parameters, a new recognition method of debris flow infrasonic signals was proposed and the corresponding recognition system was developed to solve the problems of frequent false messages raised from the current alarm equipment which cannot exclude the influence of ambient noise. 3. The monitoring of debris flow infrasonic signals was carried out by the method of triangular array and near field model, and the monitoring array was constructed to carry out long-term field monitoring test in Jiangjia gully whi
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/15055
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘敦龙. 基于次声监测的泥石流定位与实时监控方法[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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