IMHE OpenIR  > 山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
基于动力过程的泥石流淤埋风险研究
Alternative TitleResearch on the Debris Flow Buried Risk Based on Dynamic Processes
Language中文
王钧
Thesis Advisor欧国强
2015
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline岩土工程
Keyword泥石流 动力过程 动床冲淤 动边界 淤埋风险
Abstract泥石流淤埋风险是动态的,与降雨过程、土体厚度及性质的时空分布,水土动力匹配,泥石流运动过程等密切相关;本论文在分析总结前人泥石流风险研究成果的基础上,以泥石流的物理过程、动力学机制为主线,提出了基于全动力过程、考虑动边界条件下的泥石流淤埋动态风险分析方法,建立了总体框架模型和子模块算法。查明流域松散固体物质的物性、储量及其分布;以降雨过程为初始条件,分析产汇流过程、水动力时空分布、可移动固体物质时空分布、水土动力匹配过程、考虑动边界条件下的泥石流运动过程,输出泥石流淤埋动态风险分析结果。通过对锅圈岩泥石流流域的实例分析结果,表明本论文的理论方法和计算是合理、可靠的。研究成果可以为泥石流监测预警、防治工程关键设计参数、灾害管理等提供依据,具有重要的理论意义和应用价值。取得的主要成果如下: 1. 提出了基于全动力过程的泥石流淤埋动态风险分析总体框架模型 本文以动力学为切入点,以物理过程为主线,提出了基于全动力过程、考虑动边界条件下的泥石流淤埋动态风险分析方法,建立了总体框架模型和子模块算法,实现各种设计频率(监测)降雨过程输入—任意空间泥石流动力过程及特征参量(流速、流深、流量过程等)—结合易损性分析输出3D动态风险图。 2. 基于GIS平台,建立了小流域分布式水文模型数据库,对沟坡系统降雨产汇流过程进行了水文模拟,得到了水动力的时空变化特征 降雨过程和流域下垫面的空间差异性,使得流域产汇流及形成的水动力呈现时空变异性。针对锅圈岩沟,本文基于GIS平台,建立了流域分布式水文模型SWAT模型数据库,对2013年锅圈岩沟降雨产汇流过程进行了模拟,根据实测断面径流过程,对水文模拟的地表径流过程进行检验和率定,确定该模型可用于泥石流小流域降雨产汇流计算,并得到了适用于锅圈岩沟分布式水文模型的模拟参数,在此基础上,模拟分析了锅圈岩沟2013年月平均水文参数、各个子流域出口的地表径流过程、土体含水量过程等后续分析需要的关键水动力参数。 3. 在查明流域覆盖土层的厚度、物性参数等土动力的基础上,结合计算的水动力过程,计算了可移动固体物质的厚度及分布 流域的下垫面是非常复杂的,流域覆盖土层的厚度、物性参数具有时空变异性。针对锅圈岩沟,本文对地震诱发的滑坡进行了遥感解译,得到了其三维特征参数,测绘了松散固体物质分布的平面、剖面和厚度图,进行室内、室外实验,获取了松散固体物质的容重、孔隙度、特征粒径、粘聚力、内摩擦角等参数;在此基础上,利用可移动固体物质判别模型,计算了可移动固体物质的厚度及分布。 4. 基于水土动力匹配新概念与原理,反演计算了泥石流流量和容重过程的沿程变化,并用实测断面的数据,对流量过程进行了验证 在流域水动力和土动力过程研究的基础上,开展水土动力匹配的研究,提出了水土动力匹配的概念及算法,用以计算泥石流容重和流量过程的沿程变化。利用物理机制的分布式水文模型反演复杂下垫面和降雨条件下,流域沟坡系统降雨产汇流及形成的水动力大小,将水文模型划分的子流域进行分带,按面积权重计算分带的水动力大小和水动力作用下可移动固体物质的厚度;在此基础上,利用泥石流的汇流计算式,反演计算了分带及子流域出口的泥石流容重和流量过程。以锅圈岩沟2013年7.26”泥石流为例,计算得到了监测断面的流量过程,并用野外监测断面的实测峰值流量对计算的峰值流量进行了验证。 5. 设计了动边界算法,运用FLOW-3D模型对泥石流运动、堆积过程进行了动态模拟,与实际情况吻合良好;基于泥深、保护对象的属性和空间分布,对锅圈岩沟承灾体的易损性和泥石流淤埋风险进行分析,绘制了百年一遇的泥石流淤埋动态风险图 泥石流的运动、堆积过程,主要考虑沟床的侵蚀和淤积,设计动边界算法,以FLOW-3D模型为平台,对泥石流的运动、堆积过程进行了动态模拟,得到了淤埋的深度、范围等特征参量;根据泥深结果,结合保护对象的属性和空间分布,定义了泥石流淤埋风险指标,建立了淤埋风险定量分析模型。针对锅圈岩沟,通过编程,建立了包含保护对象的三维数字高程模型和动床冲淤模型;泥石流运动过程考虑动边界算法,对2013年“7.09”泥石流运动过程进行了数值模拟,并将模拟的结果和野外实测结果进行了对比,验证了模型参数和动边界算法的合理性;在此基础上,根据泥深,对锅圈岩沟泥石流危险范围内承灾体(居民建筑物、公路、排导槽和绿地)的易损性进行了分析,根据建立的淤埋风险定量分析模型,绘制了百年一遇的泥石流淤埋动态风险图。
Other AbstractThe debris flow buried risk is a dynamic process and is closely related to the precipitation process, the space and time distribution of soil thickness and property, water-soil coupling process, and debris flow movement course, etc. This paper, on the basis of analyzing and summarizing the previous debris flow risk research, put forward the whole dynamic process considering debris flow buried risk under dynamic boundary conditions and established a general framework model and sub-module algorithm in the main line of physical processes and debris flow dynamics mechanism. This paper identified the properties, storage and distribution of solid materials, analyzed the yield convergence process, space and time distribution of hydrodynamic and removable solid material thickness, water-soil dynamic coupling process and debris flow movement process under dynamic boundary conditions, and output results of debris flow buried dynamic risk. Through case study of Guo Juanyan gully watershed, the results showed that the theoretical methods and calculations of this paper are reasonable and reliable. Research results have important theoretical significance and application value which provide evidence for monitoring and warning of debris flow, the key engineering design parameters of debris flow prevention, and disaster management, etc. The main conclusions are as follows: 1. Based on the whole dynamic process of debris flow, the analytical method of dynamic buried risk was proposed. Taking dynamics as the breakthrough point and physical process as the main line, this paper proposed the analytical method of dynamic buried risk based on the whole dynamic process considering dynamic boundary conditions. The overall framework model and sub-module algorithm were established. Various design frequency (monitoring) rainfall to any space debris flow dynamic process and characteristic parameters (velocity, flow depth, flow process, etc.) with vulnerability analysis could be realized in the 3D dynamic risk graph output. 2. Based on GIS platform, the database of watershed distributed hydrological model was established, the process of runoff-producing and flow concentration in watershed gully-slope system and the hydrodynamic condition were simulated, obtaining the spatial and temporal variations of hydrodynamic. Because of time and space distribution of rainfall process and watershed underlying surface, the watershed hydrodynamic process has spatial and temporal variability. For Guo Juanyan gully, based on GIS platform, the database of SWAT watershed distributed hydrological model was established. The process of runoff-producing and flow concentration in Guo Juanyan gully in 2013 were simulated. According to the measured profile runoff process, the surface runoff of hydrologic simulation was tested and rated. This model can be used to the rainfall runoff calculation of debris flow watershed, also obtained simulation parameters suitable for Guo Juanyan. On this basis, the mean monthly hydrological parameters, surface runoff process of each basin, soil water content and other necessary key hydrodynamic parameters of Guo Juanyan watershed in 2013 were simulated. 3. On the basis of finding out watershed covering soil thickness and physical parameters of the soil, the thickness and distribution of removable solid materials were calculated combining the hydrodynamic process. The watershed underlying surface is often very complex, the thickness of underlying surface soil and parameters of rock and soil have time and space distribution characteristics. For Guo Juanyan gully, the remote sensing image interpretation of the landslide induced by the Wenchuan earthquake was conducted, its three-dimensional parameters were obtained and planar distribution and profile map and thickness map were draw, and the laboratory tests indoor and outdoor were carried out to obtain antecedent soil moisture, dry density, porosity, gradation characteristics, infiltration rate,
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/15056
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王钧. 基于动力过程的泥石流淤埋风险研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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