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川西南山区公共服务效率研究
Alternative TitlePublic Service Efficiency in Mountainous Areas of South-west Sichuan Province
Language中文
宋雪茜
Thesis Advisor邓伟
2015
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline人文地理学
Keyword川西南山区 公共服务 效率与空间公平 效率评估 增进机制
Abstract公共服务水平提升是以人为本的区域发展的重要保障。在经济社会空间聚集进程中实施基本公共服务均等化,是保障不同区域人民共享我国经济社会发展成果,防止因资源过度聚集造成公共服务空间不公平、不均衡的关键。我国山区面积比重大,山区公共服务水平提升关系到我国全面小康目标的实现。山区发展相对滞后,区位条件差异显著,空间关联度弱,人地关系过程复杂,调控难度大,总体上公共资源相对稀缺,利用效率较为低下。研究山区公共服务效率,对于解决民生问题、促进基本公共服务均等化、推进山区城镇化健康发展、缩小区域差距和实现社会和谐等具有重要的现实意义和学术价值。本研究阐述了山区公共服务的基本特征,并以四川省西南山区为研究区,深入分析了其公共服务现状和存在的问题。针对山区独特的自然和人文特点,构建了“4ES+IOO”公共服务效率评估逻辑框架,以公共服务空间公平为价值取向,以公共服务财政支出分析为经济性评估,以公共服务投入产出比为效率性评估,以公众满意度所表现的公共服务产出结果为效果性评估,对川西南山区公共服务效率进行了多尺度、多维度的综合性评估,并从制度、经济、地理、社会、文化及个体人口学及心理特征等方面,深入剖析了山区公共服务效率的内、外部影响因素。在此基础上,提出了山区公共服务效率增进机制与策略。主要研究结论包括以下几方面: 1.山区公共服务的基本特征 近三十年来,我国公共服务水平总体上有了极大的提高,但区域发展不平衡的矛盾仍十分突出,西部山区各项公共服务供给水平远低于其他地区。四川省各类公共服务供给在成都平原及东部丘陵地区较高,在西部山区较低。基本公共服务地区差距相对较小,偏高级公共服务地区差异仍然很大。川西南地区公共服务总体水平近年来有了很大程度提升,但投入空间非均衡分布特征明显。公共服务差异不仅体现在山区与平原、丘陵之间,山区内部地区间的公共服务差异也十分显著,各市州内区县间投入不均衡是导致各类公共服务空间差异的主要原因,甚至造成了公共服务地区差距继续扩大。   2.山区不同尺度不同类型公共服务效率评估结果 (1)经济性评估结果表明,山区公共服务供给水平普遍较低且呈“低-低”相关空间特征。山区不同尺度、不同类型公共服务供给具有不同空间格局特征。山区与平原、丘陵地区的不同类型公共服务辐射和聚集能力、增长极的作用均有显著差异。偏高级公共服务在山区基本符合增长极的极化作用和核心边缘空间结构,但山区城镇空间组织的特殊性导致山区基本公共服务供给难以从“增长极”向外溢出,也难以形成典型的点轴式空间结构。 (2)效率性评估结果表明,川西南地区教育及医疗公共服务投入产出效率都呈现先上升、后下降的趋势,且均有较大地区差异,于中心城区最高,边远山区最低。综合技术效率高的区县由聚集于各中心城区呈点状分布,变化到低度有序的空间结构,进而向高度有序的分形结构演化,逐渐呈现出较为明显的点-轴系统特征。川西南山区教育投资利用效率高于医疗卫生投入,硬件投入产出效率高于软件效率,且硬件效率的空间差异也明显小于软件效率,专业技术人才缺乏是川西南山区教育和医疗类公共服务效率提升所面临的最大难题。 (3)效果性评估结果表明,山区乡镇公共服务满意度空间分布不均衡,不同类型公共服务的居民满意度的空间分布表现不同。人居环境、教育与就业和政府决策类公共服务满意度空间差距相对较小,社会保障、防灾减灾、信息与金融类公共服务次之,生活能源、医疗卫生、农业生产类公共服务的满意度空间差异较大。 3.山区公共服务效率影响因素 经济、地形、空间、区域一体化、城镇化、人口密度和政策等因素对山区公共服务财政投入效率均有较显著的影响,且在不同尺度上对不同类型的公共服务供给效率影响的方向和程度均有显著差异。统一性政策和地方性政策、区域经济与区位条件、地形与海拔高度、生存环境和人文因素以及人口密度及城镇化率,是影响川西南山区公共服务投入产出效率水平和空间差异的主要原因。山区公共服务满意度是主、客观因素所形成内外营力相互作用的结果,山区公共服务总体满意度受山区地理空间区位条件影响显著,人口与经济密度、距中心区的距离(经济距离、感知距离)、社会分割程度、海拔高度和相对高度等客观因素对公共服务满意度有较大影响。同时满意度也受当地居民个体特征和主观因素影响,个体外显特征,如性别和收入来源对公共服务满意度有一定影响,而个体内隐特征,受“有限理性”经济行为偏好的影响,如居民的感知公平、需要层次和服务预期,对公共服务满意度的影响则更为显著。 4.山区公共服务效率增进机制与策略 全面理解山区的自然、经济、社会和文化等区域客观条件的独特性,深刻把握公共服务各利益相关群体的心理和行为特征规律,是提高山区公共服务效率的根本前提。充分考虑不同区域的时空差异,将统一性政策与地方针对性政策相结合,在空间上把握山区公共服务空间结构与效率机制,在时间上厘清不同发展阶段对公共服务的需求重点,分尺度、分类型确定公共服务的时空配置重点。通过内在发展能力提升和外源性资源引入,实现山区公共服务资源投入的持续提高,通过合理的决策机制、创新的区域管治和务实的管理体制,营造山区公共服务效率增进的制度环境,通过聚落重构促进人口适度聚集,通过科学编制城镇规划,改善三生空间布局,通过居住空间调控弱化文化分异,从而提高山区公共服务空间配置效率。 本研究在空间公平视角下分析公共服务效率,构建“4ES+IOO”公共服务效率评估逻辑框架,并将地形因素、空间因素和区位因素等作为解释公共服务效率的外生变量进行定量研究,有力地证明了山区公共服务效率的特殊性,并在一定程度上揭示了山区公共服务效率独特的空间规律;将行为地理学理论和方法运用于山区公共服务效率分析,从有限理性视角分析山区公共服务居民满意度特征,将山区公共服务效率影响深入到包括客观和主观因素在内的更多变量,使分析结果更贴近现实;运用新经济地理学理论分析公共服务空间格局和效率及驱动力,对从地理学视角进行公共服务研究具有一定的创新意义。
Other AbstractEnhancing public service level is essential for the people-oriented regional development. To implement the equalization of basic public services during the process of economic and social spatial clustering is critical to help people in different regions to share the results of development and to prevent the uneven distribution of public services for over aggregation of resources. Faced to large proportion of mountainous areas, the enhancement of public services in mountain regions is quite important to achieve the overall well-off society. Mountain regions are relatively undeveloped with significant disparity of location conditions and week spatial correlations, thus, the man-earth relationship is complex and hard to adjust. Public resources are rare and the efficiencies are low in mountain regions. Therefore, to study the efficiency of public services in mountainous areass of great practical significance and academic values in the fields of solving the livelihood issues, promoting the equalization of basic public services, propelling healthy urbanization, narrowing regional gap and achieving social harmony in mountain regions. This study states the basic features of public services in mountainous areas and deeply analyzes the status quo and existing problems of public services in south-west Sichuan province. The study constructs a "4ES+IOO" logical framework of evaluation of public service efficiency, and takes the spatial equity as the value orientation, takes fiscal expenditure analysis as economy evaluation, takes input-output ratio of public services analysis as efficiency evaluation and takes residents' satisfaction with public services as effective evaluation. Based on this framework, the study makes a multi-scale and multi-dimension synthesis evaluation of public services in south-west of Sichuan province. Then, the study dissects the internal and external factors that influencing public service efficiency in the views of institutional, economic, geographic, social and cultural characteristics as well as the demographic and psychological features of the residents. Based on the results of our analysis, the study gives some recommendations of the strategies of enhancing mechanism of the efficiency of public services in mountainous areas. The major results of this essay are as follows: 1. The basic features of public services in mountainous areas Public service level has had great improvement recently; however, regional disparity is also significant. Public service supplies in the western mountain regions are far below those in other regions. In Sichuan province, public service supplies are high in the Chengdu Plian and the eastern hilly regions but low in the western mountain regions. The gap of advanced public services is much larger than that of basic public services among regions. The total level of public services in south-west Sichuan province has great improvement these years, but the uneven distribution of public supply is obvious. The differences of public service level are not only among the plains, hills and mountains, but also among the internal regions in mountain areas. 2. The evaluation results of the efficiency of public services of different scales and types (1) The results of the economy evaluation indicate that public service supplies in mountain regions generally state a low-low autocorrelation characteristic. Different scales and types of public service supplies have different spatial features. The ability of radiation and aggregation and the function of growth poles of different types of public services have significant variation in plains, hills and mountains. The spatial pattern of the advanced public services in mountainous areas is coincident with the rules of the polarization of growth pole and the core-periphery spatial structure. However, the basic public services in mountainous areas are hard to spillover from the growth poles, and hard to evolve into typical Point-Axis spatial structure
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/15060
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
宋雪茜. 川西南山区公共服务效率研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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