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尼泊尔中部山区Melamchi流域农户类型及其土地利用方式
Alternative TitlePeasant household type and its land use pattern in Melamchi basin of central mountainous area in Nepal
苏艺1,2; 邓伟1,2; 张继飞1; Hriday Lal Koirala3
Corresponding Author邓伟
2016
Source Publication农业工程学报
ISSN1002-6819
Volume32Issue:9Pages:204-211
Other Abstract:农户生计策略变化为土地利用变化提供了新的研究视角。基于问卷调查、半结构访谈、数理统计等方法,对尼泊尔中部山区Melamchi流域4个典型村进行了系统调查,分析了不同类型农户的生计策略及土地利用特征。结果表明:农为主和非农为主型农户生计策略组合较优,生计多样性指数相对较高,生计风险相对较小。不同类型农户在耕作面积、土地利用结构、劳动力投入、土地增产性投入等方面均表现出不同特征。不同类型农户对改善生计的认识及策略不同,其对土地的作用及影响也有所差异。非农生计活动不仅降低了生计脆弱性和生计风险,同时也降低了农户对土地的依赖程度和垦殖率,促进了土地所有权改变和土地再分配,提高了农业生产率,但也增加了土地质量退化和环境污染的风险。针对尼泊尔山区资源环境特点及影响农户生计改善的不利因素,从农户和区域层次分别提出农户生计优化及土地可持续利用的建议。; Changes in household livelihood strategy have provided a new research perspective for land utilization changes. By means of questionnaire survey, semi-structured interview, mathematical statistics and other research methods, this research conducts a systematic investigation on the households and land plots of 4 typical villages located at the Melamchi basin in the central mountainous areas in Nepal. Then based on the income combinations, this research classifies the peasant households into 4 types, which are pure agriculture type, agriculture-dependent type, non-farming-dependent type and non-agriculture type. With above classification, the analysis is carried out on different types of households' livelihood strategies and land use patterns, in terms of the number of land plots, the area of land, the renting of land, the arrangement of labor forces and the yield-increasing input and so on. Through contrastive study on different types of households' perceptions and strategies of livelihood improving, this paper analyzes their influences on land use and comes up with the suggestions including properly utilizing land resources as well as improving household livelihood capability and level. The results show that different types of households reflect different characteristics in their family scale, family member, labor allocation, age structure and cultural level. To be specific, for the households of agriculture-dependent type and non-farming-dependent type, their livelihood strategy combination is better and livelihood diversity index is higher, and hence they possess relatively lower livelihood risks. Different households' land use patterns are obviously different. From the angle of the area of land, land area per household and per capita, it can be summarized as the sequence of agriculture-dependent type>pure agriculture type>non-farming-dependent type>non-agriculture type. Among these, the households of agriculture-dependent type possess the largest renting land coverage. From the perspective of cultivating land structure, various types of households all plant food crops as the primary crop, whereas relatively fewer households and fewer lands focus on economic crops. Comparatively, the households of agriculture-dependent type occupy the highest proportion and area of economic crop planning; as for labor input, agriculture-dependent type has the largest labor input and their male labor proportion is the highest as well; as for land yield-increasing input, the proportion of households using fertilizer in Helambu Village shows agriculture-dependent type>pure agriculture type>non-farming-dependent type, but the proportion of households in the other 3 villages shows non-farming-dependent type>pure agriculture type>agriculture-dependent type. And non-farming-dependent type occupies the largest land yield-increasing input per unit area land. Because different types of households' perceptions and strategies of livelihood improving are not same, their influences on land use are varied. The largest demands of households are to establish irrigation facilities, increase agricultural yield-increasing input, improve breeding technology guide, enhance skill training and increase local employment opportunities, encourage loans with interest subsidy or lower interest, and construct roads and so on. And they are important measures to reduce the rate of land reclamation. Non-agricultural livelihood activities will not only reduce the vulnerability and risks of livelihood, but also reduce household's dependency degree and reclamation ratio to the land, which will promote the change of land ownership and land re-distribution and improve agricultural production rate. However, this will also increase the risk of land quality devolution and environmental pollution. Given the resource environment features in the mountainous areas of Nepal and unfavorable factors hindering the improvement of households' livelihood, this paper comes up with feasible strategies of improving household's livelihood and promoting the sustainable utilization of land from both household level and regional level.
Keyword土地利用 农村地区 优化 农户类型 山区 尼泊尔
Subject AreaF301.2 ; F335.5
DOI10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2016.09.029
Indexed ByEI ; CSCD ; 北大中文核心
Language中文
CSCD IDCSCD:5702621
Funding Organization科技部对发展中国家科技援助项目
Accession numberAccession number: 20162002392082
Citation statistics
Cited Times:5[CSCD]   [CSCD Record]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/17286
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation1.中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
2.中国科学院大学
3.特里布文大学中心地理系,加德满都8212,尼泊尔
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
苏艺,邓伟,张继飞,等. 尼泊尔中部山区Melamchi流域农户类型及其土地利用方式[J]. 农业工程学报,2016,32(9):204-211.
APA 苏艺,邓伟,张继飞,&Hriday Lal Koirala.(2016).尼泊尔中部山区Melamchi流域农户类型及其土地利用方式.农业工程学报,32(9),204-211.
MLA 苏艺,et al."尼泊尔中部山区Melamchi流域农户类型及其土地利用方式".农业工程学报 32.9(2016):204-211.
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