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沟床草被对干热河谷冲沟产沙特性影响的野外模拟试验
Alternative TitleField experiment on impacts of grass belt length on characteristics of sediment yields and transport rates for gullies in Jinsha dry-hot valley region
杨丹1,2,3; 熊东红1,2; 张宝军1,2,3; 郭敏1,2,3; 郑学用1,2,3; 张素1,2,4
Corresponding Author熊东红
2015-08
Source Publication农业工程学报
ISSN1002-6819
Volume31Issue:15Pages:124-133
Abstract金沙江干热河谷冲沟极为发育,水土流失强烈,严重威胁着该区的生态安全和社会经济发展。为探明植被影响径流过程、促进沟床稳定的机理,该研究采用野外放水冲刷试验,研究分析了沟床草被带长度对径流产输沙过程和特征的影响,旨在探明沟床草被影响下径流含沙量和输沙率时空变化规律。结果表明:1)增大草被带长度可有效降低冲沟径流泥沙含量,改变径流泥沙含量的时空分布特征。泥沙含量在时间上呈指数递减趋势,在冲沟径流运动方向上呈增大趋势。沟床草被带越长,泥沙含量在时间上波动性越弱,递减趋势越明显;随沟床草被带长度的增大,径流泥沙含量在沟床径流运动方向上的增大趋势有减缓现象;此外,当草被带长度增加到8 m以后,进一步增加草被带长度对减小径流泥沙含量效果不显著,而对照小区和4 m草被带小区泥沙含量均显著高于草被带长度≥8 m的小区,说明8 m草被带是降低径流泥沙含量的较好配置长度;2)沟床草被带对径流输沙率有减小作用。当草被带长度<8 m时,径流输沙率高于草被带>8 m的小区,且在时间上呈先增大后急剧减小而后趋于稳定的变化趋势。当草被带长度≥8 m时,径流输沙率在时间上表现出微弱的降低趋势。试验冲沟径流输沙率均值在空间上沿径流运动方向自冲沟上游至其下游表现出增大趋势,但草被带长度对输沙率在冲沟径流运动方向上的增大过程有较大影响。该研究为植被措施控制冲沟侵蚀提供理论依据。
Other AbstractPermanent gully is well developed in Jinsha Dry-hot valley region in China. The ravine density of this region can be up to 7.4 km/km~2 with the maximum soil erosion modulus 1.64×10~4 t/(km~2·a). Gully erosion seriously threatens the ecological security and social-economic development of the region. Vegetation is one of effective measures to cut down soil erosion. In order to explore the mechanism that vegetation affects overflow movement and promotes gradual stability of active permanent gullies, and find out efficient approaches and methodologies to control the development of permanent gullies in this area, a field scouring experiment was carried out between March and April 2013. The study aimed to investigate the impact of grass belt length on runoff sediment yields and transportation process as well as the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of sediment content and sediment transport rate. Five experimental plots with grass belt length of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 m were constructed on an in-situ gully head in the Gully Erosion and Collapse Experimental Station, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences & the Ministry of Water Resources, Chengdu. Observing cross-sections were set in the gully bed every 4 m as well as an observing cross-section in the drainage area in every plot, and the distance between the gully headwall and the observing cross-section in the drainage area was 1 m. In addition, the width of flow section was measured by steel tap, the depth of runoff was measured by straightedge, and the velocity of overland flow was detected by staining method. Furthermore, sediment samples were collected by particular plastic bottles in every observing cross-section, and oven drying method was utilized to determine the sediment content, and sediment transport rate was calculated by sediment content and flow rate of flow cross-section. The results showed that: 1) Increasing grass belt length could not only effectively reduce the sediment content, but also change the spatio-temporal distribution of sediment content; Runoff sediment content decreased in an exponential function with the flushing time and exhibited an increasing trend along with the experimental plots from the upstream drainage area to downstream gully bed; The fluctuation degree of sediment content over the experimental time went through a decrease process with the increase of grass belt length; As the increase of grass belt length, the fitness of sediment content with experimental time became better, that is to say, the downward trend of sediment content became more and more obvious; On the other hand, although the sediment content underwent an increase process, the increasing trend of sediment content became weaker and weaker along with the experimental plots from the upstream drainage area to downstream gully bed; 2) the grass belt could reduce the sediment transport rate;
Keyword输沙 径流 土壤 冲沟侵蚀 草被带长度 产沙量
Subject AreaTv14
DOI10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2015.15.017
Indexed ByEI ; CSCD ; 北大中文核心
Language中文
CSCD IDCSCD:5503955
Funding Organization国家重点基础研究发展计划资助项目课题(2015CB452704) ; 中国科学院“西部之光”重点项目(Y4R2060060) ; 四川省应用基础研究计划项目(2014JY0067) ; 国家人力资源与社会保障部留学人员科技活动择优资助项目(2013年度)
Accession numberAccession number:20153601251012
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/17815
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Affiliation1.中国科学院山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室,成都 610041;
2.中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所,成都 610041;
3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
4.四川农业大学农学院,成都 611130
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨丹,熊东红,张宝军,等. 沟床草被对干热河谷冲沟产沙特性影响的野外模拟试验[J]. 农业工程学报,2015,31(15):124-133.
APA 杨丹,熊东红,张宝军,郭敏,郑学用,&张素.(2015).沟床草被对干热河谷冲沟产沙特性影响的野外模拟试验.农业工程学报,31(15),124-133.
MLA 杨丹,et al."沟床草被对干热河谷冲沟产沙特性影响的野外模拟试验".农业工程学报 31.15(2015):124-133.
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