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Runout and entrainment analysis of an extremely large rock avalanche-a case study of Yigong, Tibet, China
Kang, Chao1; Chan, Dave1,2; Su, Fenghuan3; Cui, Peng3
Corresponding AuthorChao Kang
2017-02-01
Source PublicationLANDSLIDES
ISSN1612-510X
Volume14Issue:1Pages:123-139
SubtypeArticle
Abstract

An extremely large rock avalanche occurred on April 9, 2000 at Yigong, Tibet, China. It started with an initial volume of material of 90 x 10(6) m(3) comprising mainly of loose material lying on the channel bed. The rock avalanche travelled around 10 km in horizontal distance and formed a 2.5-km-long by 2.5-km-wide depositional fan with a final volume of approximately 300 x 10(6) m(3). An energy-based debris flow runout model is used to simulate the movement process with a new entrainment model. The entrainment model considers both rolling and sliding motions in calculating the volume of eroded material. Entrainment calculation is governed by a second order partial differential equation which is solved using the finite difference method. During entrainment, it is considered that the total mass is changed due to basal erosion. Also the profile of the channel bed is adjusted accordingly due to erosion at the end of each calculation time step. For Yigong, the profile used in the simulation was extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution of 30 m x 30 m. Measurements obtained from site investigation, including deposition depth and flow height at specific location, are used to verify the model. Ground elevation-based DEM before and after the event is also used to verify the simulation results where access was difficult. It is found that the calculated runout distance and the modified deposition height agree with the field observations. Moreover, the back-calculated flow characteristics based on field observations, such as flow velocity, are also used for model verifications. The results indicate that the new entrainment model is able to capture the entrainment volume and depth, runout distance, and deposition height for this case.

KeywordRock Avalanche Debris Flow Entrainment Yigong Rock Avalanche Debris Runout Modeling Soil Erosion
WOS HeadingsScience & Technology ; Technology ; Physical Sciences
DOI10.1007/s10346-016-0677-7
WOS Subject ExtendedEngineering ; Geology
Indexed BySCI
WOS KeywordDEBRIS FLOWS ; MODEL ; BED ; ASSEMBLIES ; EROSION ; SLIDES
Language英语
Quartile2区
TOP
WOS SubjectEngineering, Geological ; Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
WOS IDWOS:000393643900009
Funding OrganizationKey Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China(41030742) ; Major Projects of National Natural Science Foundation of China(41190084) ; Natural Science and Engineering of Canada Discovery grant
Citation statistics
Cited Times:18[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/18497
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Affiliation1.Univ Alberta, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Edmonton, AB, Canada
2.Three Gorges Univ, Coll Civil Engn & Architecture, Yichang, Peoples R China
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Mt Hazards & Environm, Chengdu, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Kang, Chao,Chan, Dave,Su, Fenghuan,et al. Runout and entrainment analysis of an extremely large rock avalanche-a case study of Yigong, Tibet, China[J]. LANDSLIDES,2017,14(1):123-139.
APA Kang, Chao,Chan, Dave,Su, Fenghuan,&Cui, Peng.(2017).Runout and entrainment analysis of an extremely large rock avalanche-a case study of Yigong, Tibet, China.LANDSLIDES,14(1),123-139.
MLA Kang, Chao,et al."Runout and entrainment analysis of an extremely large rock avalanche-a case study of Yigong, Tibet, China".LANDSLIDES 14.1(2017):123-139.
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