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施肥方式对紫色土活性氮损失及氮肥利用率的影响
Alternative TitleEffects of Fertilization Regimes on Reactive Nitrogen Losses and Nitrogen Use Efficiency from Purple Soil
Language中文
刘韵
Thesis Advisor朱波
2016
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline土壤学
Keyword小麦—玉米轮作 活性氮损失 施肥方式 氮肥利用率 生态优化施肥方式 紫色土
Other Abstract

(1)施肥促发紫色土N2O和NO排放。所有施肥处理均在施肥后3-9天内出现N2O和NO排放峰,峰值持续两周。常规NPK施肥处理在小麦和玉米季的N2O排放峰值与通量分别为57.02 ± 6.34 μg(N)·m-2·h-1、0.74 ± 0.14 kg(N)·hm-2、72.00 ± 16.34 μg(N)·m-2·h-1、0.79 ± 0.02 kg(N)·hm-2。NO的排放峰值与通量分别为59.13 ± 20.72 μg(N)·m-2·h-1、0.30 ± 0.06 kg(N)·hm-2,16.57 ± 6.73 μg(N)·m-2·h-1、0.04 ± 0.01 kg(N)·hm-2。与常规NPK施肥方式相比,有机物料添加(OM、OMNPK、RSDNPK)显著增加了N2O峰值排放速率,导致紫色土小麦-玉米轮作周期的N2O累积排放增加。猪厩肥的施用(OM、OMNPK)使土壤NO呈现与其他施肥处理相反的规律,冬小麦季的NO累积排放通量远小于夏玉米季。常规化肥基础上施用硝化抑制剂(DCDNPK)则显著降低了N2O和NO的排放通量,相比于常规NPK施肥处理分别减少了44%和91%。RSDNPK相比于常规NPK施肥处理显著增加了N2O累积排放量,却显著减少了NO排放。降雨引发的干湿交替对N2O排放具有激发作用。(2)紫色土氮素径流损失主要通过地表径流和壤中流两种形式,而壤中流是氮素的主要损失途径,硝态氮是氮素流失的最主要的形态。NPK施肥处理的地表径流氮素年损失通量为1.90 kg?hm-2,壤中流氮素损失通量为57.00 kg?hm-2,全年总损失氮量为58.90 kg?hm-2,占全年施氮量的21%。单施氮肥(N)的全年地表径流损失总氮通量为2.33 kg?hm-2,壤中流损失总氮通量为93.63 kg?hm-2,全年总损失氮量为95.96 kg?hm-2,占全年施氮量的34.2%。有机肥(OM)施肥处理全年地表径流损失总氮通量为2.17 kg?hm-2,壤中流损失总氮通量为63.01 kg?hm-2,全年总损失氮量为65.18 kg?hm-2,占全年施氮量的22.56%。有机-无机肥混施(OMNPK)处理全年地表径流损失总氮通量为3.35 kg?hm-2,壤中流损失总氮通量为42.01 kg?hm-2,全年总损失氮量为45.36 kg?hm-2,占全年施氮量的17.29%。秸秆还田配施氮磷钾施肥(RSDNPK)处理全年地表径流损失总氮通量为1.21 kg?hm-2,壤中流损失总氮通量为33.02 kg?hm-2,全年总损失氮量为34.23 kg?hm-2,占全年施氮量的11.60%。生物炭配施氮磷钾施肥(BCNPK)处理全年地表径流损失总氮通量为1.10 kg?hm-2,壤中流损失总氮通量为34.21 kg?hm-2,全年总损失氮量为35.31 kg?hm-2,占全年施氮量的12.35%。硝化抑制剂配施氮磷钾施肥(DCDNPK)处理全年地表径流损失总氮通量为1.23 kg?hm-2,壤中流损失总氮通量为41.01 kg?hm-2,全年总损失氮量为42.24 kg?hm-2,占全年施氮量的14.89%。(3)参数本地化后的DNDC模型能够准确模拟紫色土坡耕地小麦、玉米生物量与产量及农田氨挥发通量。常规NPK施肥处理全年氨挥发累积通量模拟值为60.6 kg ha-1,占施氮量21.6%,有机无机混合施肥(OMNPK)及硝化抑制剂处理(DCDNPK)显著增加了土壤氨挥发通量。(4)在冬小麦—夏玉米轮作周年,有机-无机混合施肥(OMNPK)与生物炭处理(BCNPK)具有最高作物产量和较高的氮肥利用率,分别为7992、7946 kg/hm2和37.74%和36.6%,秸秆还田施肥处理(RSDNPK)具有最高的氮肥利用率41%。施肥方式是作物产量和氮肥利用率的主要影响因素,因此可以通过施肥调控土壤供氮能力和作物需氮一致性来提升产量和氮肥利用率。 活性氮损失随作物产量升高而降低。氮肥偏生产力与NOx排放损失率、氨挥发率及氮素径流损失率呈显著负相关关系(p < 0.05)。说明提高产量和氮肥效率是减排活性氮损失的有效途径。(5)随着对粮食需求的不断增长,氮肥投入也在迅速增长。综合考虑农学、经济、环境友好进而优化施肥方式是农业可持续生产的必经之路。紫色土冬小麦—夏玉米轮作周年农学优化施肥方式是有机-无机配施(OMNPK)处理,经济优化施肥方式和生态优化施肥方式均是秸秆还田(RSDNPK)处理。与农学优化施肥方式相比,生态优化施肥方式的净收益增加了23%,从36.32 yuan/kg增加到44.73 yuan/kg。产量降低了13%,单位施肥经济收益提高24%,但是其活性氮损失显著降低了36%。说明生态施肥方式RSDNPK能够在保证作物高产的同时有效减少因施氮造成的活性氮损失,能够实现作物高产与环境友好的统一。

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1) Fertilization regimes had a priming effect on the N2O and NO emissions from purple soil. N2O and NO emission increased rapidly at the early stage of fertilization with peak emission rates within 3-9 days after fertilization. The peak value and emission flux of N2O in NPK treatment in wheat and maize season was 57.02 ±6.34 μg (N)·m-2·h-1, 0.74±0.14 kg (N)·hm-2 and 72.00±16.34 μg (N)·m-2·h-1, 0.79±0.02 kg (N)·hm-2, respectively. The peak emission rate and flux of NO in NPK treatment in wheat and maize season was 59.13±20.72 μg (N)·m-2·h-1, 0.30±0.06 kg (N)·hm-2 and 16.57±6.73 μg (N)·m-2·h-1, 0.04±0.01 kg (N)·hm-2, respectively. In comparison with NPK, OM and OMNPK enhanced N2O emission significantly, whereas, DCDNPK significantly reduced both N2O and NO emission. RSDNPK significantly enhanced N2O emission but reduced NO emission. In contrast with other treatment, the cumulative NO emissions of OM and OMNPK in wheat season were higher than in maize season. Dry-wet rotation induced by rainfall motivated N2O emission.(2) Nitrogen lost mainly via overland flow and interflow, which was the main loss pathway of nitrogen. While nitrate was the main migration form. The loss flux of nitrogen via overland flow and interflow of treatment NPK were 1.90 and 57.00 kg·hm-2. And annual cumulative nitrogen loading was 58.90 kg·hm-2, accounting for 21% of annual nitrogen applied. Treatment N had significant higher N loss flux than other treatments. The N loss flux from treatment N via overland flow and interflow were 2.33 and 93.63 kg·hm-2. And annual cumulative N loss was 95.96 kg·hm-2, accounting for 34.2% of annual nitrogen applied. Treatment RSDNPK had significant lower loss flux than other treatments. The N loss flux from treatment RSDNPK via overland flow and interflow were 1.21 and 33.02 kg·hm-2. And annual cumulative N loss was 32.23 kg·hm-2, accounting for 11.60% of annual nitrogen applied. The annual runoff N loss of treatment OM, OMNPK, BCNPK and DCDNPK accounted for 22.56%, 17.29%, 12.35% and 14.89% of annual nitrogen applied, respectively. (3) Modeling of wheat and maize biomass, crop yields and NH3 volatilization flues with the validated DNDC model may fall in consistence with the observed results. The NH3 volatilization flux in treatment NPK was 60.6 kg ha-1, accounting for 21.6% of annual nitrogen applied. Treatment OMNPK and DCDNPK had significant higher flux than other treatment. (4) In wheat-maize rotation system, treatment OMNPK and BCNPK had higher grain yield and fertilizer N use efficiency with values being 7992, 7946 kg?hm-2 and 37.74%, 36.6%, respectively. Treatment RSDNPK had the highest fertilizer N use efficiency of 41%. With increase of PFP, NOx emission and NH3 volatilization while runoff nitrogen decreased, indicated that improving both crop yield and NUF was a balance between high crop yield and ecological benefit.(5) With the growing demand for food, fertilizer inputs are rapidly increasing. To develop ecologically optimal N fertilizer management practices integrating agronomic, economic and environmental benefits is urgent task for sustainable agriculture. Optimal agronomic N fertilization regime was recommended for treatment of OMNPK. In another aspect, optimally economic and ecological N fertilization regime was recommended as treatment of RSDNPK. The net income of RSDNPK increased by 23%, from 36.32 yuan/kg to 44.73 yuan/kg compared with OMNPK, while reactive N losses decreased 36% with 13% of crop yield lost. Therefore, we recommended RSDNPK as the ecologically optimal fertilization regime in hillslope croplands of purple soil.

Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/18861
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘韵. 施肥方式对紫色土活性氮损失及氮肥利用率的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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