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川中丘陵区油橄榄主要引种品种叶片功能性状特征及其与坐果结实的关系
Alternative TitleThe leaf functional traits and its relationships with fruit set of different olive(Olea europaea L.) cultivars in the central Sichuan hilly region
Language中文
王尧尧
Thesis Advisor朱万泽
2016
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword油橄榄 叶片功能性状 营养生长 坐果数 坐果率
Other Abstract

基于功能性状比较的研究是植物功能生态学的研究热点,叶片功能性状对环境变化最敏感,与植物碳同化及对资源的利用能力联系紧密。对于多年生果树油橄榄而言,一年只结果一次,结果期集中,果实膨大也需要营养,生存环境中的可利用资源有限,生殖生长和营养生长的矛盾非常突出。本文通过对金堂县油橄榄种植园的油橄榄叶片功能性状与坐果结实的特征的研究,比较了不同品种油橄榄叶片形态、光合能力、营养元素等功能性状指标,探讨了各个品种的光合特征以及对水分、营养条件等资源环境的利用效率差异,并且应用因子分析和隶属函数评价油橄榄营养生长状况,通过测定不同季节叶片功能性状指标和坐果率,尝试揭示油橄榄营养生长与坐果结实的关系,以为油橄榄种植和营养管理提供科学依据。主要研究结论如下:(1)不同油橄榄品种叶片形态指标特征。皮瓜尔叶片最长(56.39mm),鄂植八号最短(40.52mm);佛奥叶片最宽(13.11mm),白叶最窄(5.56mm);长宽比最大的是白叶,最小的是佛奥;叶片最厚的是阿贝基纳(0.38mm),最薄的是白叶(0.33mm)。综合各个季节,阿贝基纳的比叶面积(SLA)是最高的,最高达9.62m2?kg-1,相对生长速率旺盛,白叶基本是最低的,最低为5.09 m2?kg-1,鄂植八号和白叶的叶干物质含量(LDMC)最高,叶片最坚硬。(2)不同品种油橄榄叶片营养元素含量特征。综合各个季节,鄂植八号除了叶磷含量(LPC)以外,其他营养元素含量基本都高于其他品种,是营养最充足的品种;白叶的营养元素含量基本低于其他品种,营养匮乏;皮瓜尔的钙含量显著低于其他品种,最低仅为0.15%;阿贝基纳的LPC各个季节基本均高于其他品种。综合各个品种不同季节,研究区中6月和10月,氮元素低于1%;磷元素相对与氮和钾含量来说,偏低;叶片镁含量在适宜值内,叶片钾和钙含量充足。(3)不同品种油橄榄光合日变化呈双峰曲线,在午后14:00出现“光合午休”现象,各个品种日平均净光合速率(Pn)大小依次为白叶>阿贝基纳>皮瓜尔>鄂植八号;气孔导度日变化也呈双峰曲线,幅度小于Pn;蒸腾速率(Tr)表现为下午高于上午,各个品种Tr大小依次为白叶>鄂植八号>阿贝基纳>皮瓜尔;水分利用效率(WUE)从高到低依次为阿贝基纳>白叶>皮瓜尔>鄂植八号。Pn与气孔导度显著正相关,与胞间CO2呈显著负相关,与光合有效辐射不相关;WUE与气孔导度显著正相关,与光合有效辐射显著负相关,与胞间CO2显著负相关。(4)不同品种的光响应曲线特征比较。综合各个月份,4个品种都不属于典型的阳生植物,对弱光均有一定的利用能力。各个品种之间,阿贝基纳的白叶最大净光合速率(Amax)和光补偿点(LCP)显著低于各个品种,表现量子效率(φ)显著高于其他各个品种,说明阿贝基纳是4个品种中利用弱光能力最强的,耐阴性最好;白叶的Amax和光饱和点(LSP)均显著高于其他品种,利用强光的能力强,皮瓜尔的LCP显著高于其他各个品种,耐阴性是最差的,利用弱光的能力弱,鄂植八号各个光响应参数都处于4个品种的中间位置,LSP不高,LCP不低,对强光和弱光都有一定的利用能力。(5)鄂植八号的叶绿素a含量和总量在各个月份基本高于其他品种,叶绿素a(Chl a)最高为1.10 mg?kg-1,叶绿素总量最高为1.53 mg?kg-1;皮瓜尔的叶绿素a含量基本最低;叶绿素b(Chl b)在各个品种之间大小不一,最低为0.25 mg?kg-1;阿贝基纳的叶绿素a/b在各个月份基本都是最高的,各个品种基本都小于3。(6)4个油橄榄品种花期在4月下旬,时间一周左右。阿贝基纳结果枝的叶片特征、样花数、坐果数等显著高于其他3个品种,各个品种样花数从多到少依次为阿贝基纳>鄂植八号>皮瓜尔>白叶,坐果数从高到低依次为阿贝基纳>鄂植八号>白叶>皮瓜尔,总坐果率从高到低依次为阿贝基纳>白叶>皮瓜尔>鄂植八号。果实生长期在5~11月,生长节奏是“慢—快—慢—快”,5~6月是果实生长最快的时期。坐果数和坐果率随着季节变化逐渐降低,油橄榄第一次落果是在花后一个月,即5~6月,4个品种平均落果率高达91.7%,第二次坐果在8~10月,但是落果显著少于第一次。(7)不同季节营养生长和果实产量的关系不同。5月,营养生长和坐果数、坐果率呈显著正相关关系,坐果数随着叶绿素含量、P含量的指标的升高而增多,坐果率随着叶绿素含量、营养元素含量和光合能力的升高而升高;6月,营养生长和坐果相关关系不显著,坐果数随着叶绿素含量和钾钙镁含量升高而增加,随着叶片光合、呼吸以及氮磷含量的升高而减少;8月,营养生长和坐果数相关关系不显著。坐果数随比叶面积、叶干物质含量、叶片氮磷钙元素含量的升高而降低,随着镁含量的增加而增加,10月,营养生长和坐果之间相关性不显著,光合能力、呼吸速率和叶片磷镁元素含量对坐果的影响最大,坐果数随着光合呼吸速率和叶片磷镁含量的升高而增加。可见,5~6月是保证果实产量最重要的月份,应该给各个品种大量补充水分和养分保证果实发育充足的营养储备,6~8月应该控制白叶、鄂植八号、皮瓜儿的营养生长。(8)综合各个品种的叶片功能性状以及开花坐果情况,可以得出:阿贝基纳是研究区的优势品种,可以在川中丘陵区进行推广和种植,鄂植八号营养生长旺盛,如果控制得当,也可以发展为当地的优势品种。

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In the plant functional ecology, the comparative research of functional traits is a hot spot. Leaf functional traits are most sensitive to environmental change, linked to the resource utilization and plant carbon assimilation. For perennial fruit trees olive, the period of of fruit growth need nutrition, the available resources of survival environment is limited; the competition of reproductive and vegetative growth is very prominent. In this paper, olive orchard is located in Jintang County. By studied leaf functional traits and fruit characteristics, compared the different varieties of olive leaf morphological characteristics, photosynthetic capacity, nutrient element content, discussed the varieties of photosynthetic characteristics and the condition of water and nutrients utilization efficiency of resources, used factor analysis and membership function to evaluat olive nutrition growth, by measuring the leaf functional traits and fruit rate in different seasons, we try to reveal the ralationships between vegetative growth and fruit set, provide a scientific basis for nutrient management. The main research conclusions are as follows:(1) The characteristics of different cultivars of olive leaf morphological index. The leaf of Picula is the longest (56.39mm), Ezhi NO. 8 is the shortest (40.52mm), Frantoio is the widest (13.11mm), Hojiblanca is the most narrow(5.56mm), the Hojiblanca is the biggest of length-width ratio and Frantoio is smallest. Arbequina is the thickest (0.38mm) and Hojiblanca is the thinnest (0.33mm). In every season, the SLA of Arbequina is biggest, 9.62m2 ? kg-1,the relative growth rate is high. Ezhi NO. 8 and Hojiblanca is the biggest of LDMC, the leaf are harder.(2)The olive leaf nutrient element content of different cultivars. In every season, the Ezhi NO. 8 is generally higher than other cultivars except LPC, the nutrition is the most abundant. Hojiblanca is lower than other cultivars, and lack of nutrition. Each species in different seasons, in the study area in June and October, nitrogen is lower than 1%; Relative with nitrogen and phosphorus, potassium content is low; Leaf magnesium content within the appropriate value; leaf potassium and calcium content is enough.(3)Different cultivars of olive photosynthetic diurnal variation shows bimodal curve, appeared "photosynthetic noon break" phenomenon in the afternoon. The average size of Pn followed by Hojiblanca>Arbequina>Picula>Ezhi NO. 8. Stomatal conductance variation also shows bimodal curve, amplitude is less than the Pn; Transpiration rate is higher than in the morning, Tr is in the order of Hojiblanca>Ezhi NO. 8.>Arbequina>Picula. Water use efficiency from high to low is Arbequina > Hojiblanca>Picula>Ezhi NO. 8. Pn and stomatal conductance is significantly positive correlation has negative correlation with intercellular CO2, has no correlation with photosynthetic active radiation; WUE and stomatal conductance is significantly positive correlation, has negative correlation with photosynthetic active radiation and the intercellular CO2. (4)Different cultivars of light response curve characteristics. Each month, four cultivars are not belong to the typical sun plants, have certain ability to use both for weak light. The Amax and LCP of Arbequina are significantly lower than others, φis significantly higher than that of every other cultivars, shows Arbequina has the strongest ability of weak light ustilization. The Amax and LSP of Hojiblanca are significantly higher than other cultivars, has the ability of strong light ustilization. The LCP of Picula is significantly higher than other cultivars; the ability of take advantage of the weak light is weak. The light response parameters of Ezhi NO. 8. is at an intermediate position, LSP is not high, LCP is not low, has a certain ability to light availability.(5)In every month, the content of chlorophyll of Ezhi NO. 8. Is higher than other cultivars, the maximum chlorophyll a is 1.10 mg?kg-1, total chlorophyll a maximum of 1.53 mg?kg-1, Picula is the lowest of chlorophyll a. The lowest content of chlorophyll b is 0.25 mg?kg-1. The chlorophyll a/b of Arbequina is the highest, every basic cultivar is less than 3.(6)The time of olive bloom is in late April, for a week or so. The number of leaf, flowers, and fruit ignificantly are allhigher than other three cultivars. The sample flowers are from more to less, followed Arbequina> Ezhi NO. 8. >Picula> Hojiblanca, fruit number from high to low in turn for Arbequina > Ezhi NO. 8. > Hojiblanca>Picula, total fruit rate from high to low in turn for Arbequina > Ezhi NO. 8. > Hojiblanca>Picula, Fruit growth is in from May to September, growth rhythm is “fast, fast, slow, slow”, in the May to June, fruit growth is the fastest. With the seasons change, fruit number and fruit rate is gradually decreased, the fruit abscission rate up to 91.7% on average until June. The second time of flushing in August to October, but fruit drop significantly less than the first time.(7)The relationship between leaf vegetative growth and fruit yield in different seasons is different. In May, the number of vegetative growth and fruit and fruit rate is significantly positively related to the main factors, affecting the flushing is chlorophyll content and leaf P content. In June, negative correlation between vegetative growth and fruit, affect the flushing is chlorophyll content and calcium and magnesium content. In August, is found to be inversely associated with the number of vegetative growth and fruit, the main factors affecting the flushing is leaf SLA and LDMC and leaf P content. in October, no significant correlation between vegetative growth and fruit, SLA, LDMC, content of phosphorus, magnesium and dark respiration rate is influence on fruit numbers. In short, we should guarantee the supplement water and nutrients in May to June and control the vegetative growth of plants in June to August.(8) In a word, Integrated various cultivars of leaf functional traits and flowering fruit, we can conclude that: Arbequina has advantage over other cultivars in the research area, can be planted and promoted in upper hilly-gully region siltstones, Ezhi NO.8. vegetative growth is fast, if control the relationships between vegetative growth and fruit growth properly, can also be advantageous cultivar. 

Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/18863
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王尧尧. 川中丘陵区油橄榄主要引种品种叶片功能性状特征及其与坐果结实的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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