IMHE OpenIR  > 山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
基于模型试验的浅层堆积层滑坡多级临界降雨强度值域及预警技术研究
Alternative TitleUsing Simulation Model Experiments to Develop multistage critical rainfall intensity range for Rainfall-Induced Shallow Landslides of Deposits
Language中文
李倩倩
Thesis Advisor乔建平
2016
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline岩土工程
Keyword浅层堆积层滑坡 降雨入渗规律 多级临界雨强 仿真模型试验 预警技术参考体系
Other Abstract

历史以来,西南山区都是我国地质灾害的多发区。512地震以后,该地区的次生灾害频繁发生,潜在的滑坡、泥石流物源不计其数,危害十分严重。为此国家将防灾减灾工作列为十二五工作的重要计划之一。历史以来的观察记录表明,许多重大灾害都是受降雨诱发的,应对降雨诱发型滑坡的防灾减灾方法主要有监测预警。多年来课题组以都江堰市白沙河流域为示范区,致力于降雨型滑坡监测预警的研究。白沙河流域一带滑坡多为可能将要发生二次启动的堆积层,堆积层滑坡颗粒级配复杂、孔隙发育、破坏模式也并不明确的。鉴于此,本文采用模型试验的方法,希望以堆积层滑坡的破坏模式研究为出发点,研究堆积层滑坡的降雨临界值域,进而提出堆积层滑坡的预警技术参考体系和预警技术路线,为监测预警工作服务。论文的主要研究内容和取得的主要研究成果如下:(1)获得堆积层滑坡的降雨强度临界值、多级临界值域及对应的破坏模式、破坏严重等级、传感器响应规律选取典型的野外滑坡实例,搭建仿真模型,并分别人工模拟30mm/h、60mm/h、90mm/h、120mm/h、150mm/h、180mm/h 6种降雨强度。每种降雨强度首次破坏发生的降雨历时是不同的,根据降雨强度与每种降雨强度下首次破坏发生时最短降雨历时的关系建立I-D曲线,获得仿真模型的临界雨强约为49mm/h。根据仿真模型破坏的不同形式和不同的严重等级划分模型的多级临界雨强值域,起点为临界雨强49mm/h。多级临界值域分别为49~60mm/h、60~90mm/h、90~120mm/h、150~180mm/h、≥180mm/h,对应的破坏模式分别为局部坡脚崩塌、局部坡脚崩塌或层层后退式崩塌、层层后退式崩塌、层层后退式崩塌或整体滑坡、整体滑坡。根据各个降雨强度下滑坡破坏规模占总规模的比值及破坏结束时刻的降雨总历时,提出了破坏严重程度和严重等级的概念,且仿真模型试验破坏严重等级的计算结果与破坏模式对应关系良好。针对每种降雨强度下的破坏情况,含水量传感器、孔隙水压力传感器和地表、地下传感器有不同响应,记录的响应规律可作为滑坡泥石流物源远程监测的参考依据。(2)基于室内外堆积层坡体的降雨入渗试验规律确定堆积层滑坡的稳定性特征参数论文汇总了室内外降雨入渗试验可能出现的4种入渗稳定状态,最不利的状态是坡体表面及滑动面以上一定区域内是饱和的,中部是非饱和的。在计算滑坡稳定性时需分成两种情况来进行计算:当降雨强度较小,滑坡的破坏模式是渐进式破坏时,可采用不平衡系数传递法,计算滑体最前方的条块的稳定性;当降雨强度较大,滑坡的破坏模式以整体破坏为主时,需采用整体失稳的方法来计算。(3)建立堆积层滑坡的预警技术参考体系并给出预警技术路线根据以上研究内容,获得堆积层滑坡预警的多个指标,包括临界降雨强度值域及与之对应的破坏模式、破坏严重等级、失效概率、可靠度指标及监测系统的响应,以此建立堆积层滑坡的预警技术参考体系和技术路线。

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Through all recorded history,southwestern mountainous area is the hazard-prone area. After the 5·12 earthquake,Along with countless potential landslide, debris flow provenance, Secondary disasters occurred frequently,hazard is very serious. So our government ranked “ The disaster prevention and mitigation”as one of the 12th five-year plan. The observation records show that since the history that many major disasters are induced by rainfall. Response to rainfall-induced landslides disaster, the main methods including the monitoring and early-warning. For years we have used the white sand river basin in Dujiangyan City as the demonstration zone, committed to the monitoring and early warning research for rainfall-induced landslide. Many of the landslide body at the white sand River basin composed by accumulation horizon have slide in the earthquake. So their Grain size distribution are complex, porosity is developmental, even the failure modes are uncertain. Therefore simulating model tests are adopted in my paper to determine the critical ranges of the rainfall mass, and put forward the technology reference system for early warningThe main research content and the main research results are as follows:(1) To obtain the rainfall intensity thresholds, multistage critical ranges and the corresponding failure modes, failure severity level, sensor response rules.Selecting a typical landslide as an example, to build the simulation models, and artificiae1+lly simulate respectively the different rainfall intensity 30 mm/h, 60 mm/h, 90 mm/h,120 mm/h, 150 mm/h and 180 mm/h. And each duration from the beginning to the first failure phenomenon is different even under the same rainfall intensity. The paper selected the shortest duration from all of one kind of rainfall intensity as the y-axis, and the corresponding rainfall intensity as x-axis, forming the I - D curve, which is the exponential form. And finally the critical rainfall intensity of the simulation models from the curve is about 49 mm/h.The multistage critical ranges are respectively 49~60mm/h、60~90mm/h、90~120mm/h、150~180mm/h、≥180mm/h, and the corresponding failure modes are respectively “ collapse only at Part of the slope toe “, “collapse only at Part of the slope toe “ or “progressive collapse backwards “, “progressive collapse backwards “, “progressive collapse backwards “or” overall slide”. And the concept of damage severity and severity level are put forward from the rate of destruction.(2)Based on the indoor-field tests to determine the stability characteristic parameters of accumulation LandslidesThe indoor-field tests shows that when the water content reached a steady state,the worst is that the slope a certain area which are below the surface and over the sliding surface is saturated, and other area in the middle is unsaturated. stability calculation should be divided into two types: when the rainfall intensity is small, the landslide failure mode is the gradual damage, and the stability calculation should use the unbalanced coefficient transmission method, which attaches the stability of the sliding body in the front; When the rainfall intensity is bigger, landslide failure mode is the overall destruction, which use the method to calculate the global instability..(3)Establishing technology reference system and technique route accumulation landslide for early warningFrom the above results, we can confirm the failure modes and gain several indicators to establish technology reference system and technical route for early warning of the accumulation landslide. 

Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/18902
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李倩倩. 基于模型试验的浅层堆积层滑坡多级临界降雨强度值域及预警技术研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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