|Alternative Title||Patterns and soil chemistry of preferential flow pathways in a subalpine forest ecosystem|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||优先流 森林土壤 溶质 成土过程 水质安全|
随着土壤关键带和水文土壤学研究的深入，优先流定量表达与土壤结构和分层作用，原位水流和化学传输，土壤发生与土壤水文和土壤变化是水文土壤学亟待解决的两个研究地球关键带的科学问题。由于优先流快速流动特性，溶质未经过土壤胶体吸附等传统基质流过程，大气降水和地表径流等水资源形式通过优先流路径将溶质快速向深层土壤和地下水运移，致使水土养分流失，地下水污染。另一方面优先流发育改变地表径流过程，发育程度高的优先流甚至造成如泥石流，滑坡等地质灾害。优先流研究不仅是地球关键带研究重点，而且是环境生态与灾害防治研究重点。本文系统介绍优先流及其路径的概念、类型、运移特征、相关理论、目前存在的问题以及未来的发展趋势，分别以中国科学院贡嘎山森林生态系统定位监测站冰川退缩迹地和垂直带谱以及德国厄尔士山萨克森州森林保护区森林土壤优先流为研究对象，通过野外染色示踪试验与室内图片分析及元素化学分析实验紧密结合，系统分析了包含海螺沟冰川退缩迹地以及贡嘎山垂直带谱的贡嘎山森林土壤优先流类型、分布特征、溶质运移路径和规律、优先流路径以及优先流形成的驱动影响因子，研究结果对研究区域的径流形成、土壤溶质元素迁移、地表地下水质净化等具有一定的理论指导及技术支撑作用。研究结果表明：（1）通过野外土壤剖面染色示踪以及室内图片分析优先流路径分布表征因子（优先流染色面积比，优先流分数，优先流路径染色图片长度指数以及优先流程度评价指数）分析成土过程、林分类型以及土壤类型对优先流路径分布影响。结果发现，随着海螺沟冰川退缩迹地冰川退缩时间增加，土壤优先流由微孔隙流为主到土壤优先流发育大孔隙流和微孔隙流并重。贡嘎山阔叶林土壤染色区域主要集中在15 cm土壤深度，染色比大于80%。在土壤深度为10 cm 到30 cm处土壤染色比从70%迅速升高至85%。针阔混交林土壤0-30 cm处优先流发育较其他土壤剖面更为成熟。贡嘎山疏松岩性土表层优先流发育较弱，而深层优先流发育较好。而厄尔士山灰土优先流却相反。（2）通过不同土壤类型的贡嘎山和厄尔士山土壤优先流路径磷形态对比，运用主成分分析和配对T检验方法分析环境因子对土壤优先流路径中磷形态影响发现，厄尔士山土壤潜在生物有效无机磷和闭蓄态磷浓度远大于贡嘎山土壤样。海螺沟冰川退缩迹地土壤优先流路径磷形态分析发现土壤优先流路径中有机磷含量较土壤基质含量高，且随着土壤发育过程，潜在有效态磷呈现较为明显的差异。（3）通过对贡嘎山海螺沟冰川退缩迹地和垂直带谱土壤优先流常量元素和重金属研究，运用富集因子法发现，在土壤优先流和基质路径中，Na，K，Ca，Mn均没有显著性差异，上述元素属于土壤优先流路径保守溶质。而优先流路径中Fe略高于基质流路径，优先流对Fe运移能力有限，Fe介于保守溶质和反应溶质之间，土壤优先流路径和基质路径中Mg，Al差异显著，属于反应性溶质，受土壤成土过程影响较大。铜和铅浓度在冰川退缩迹地土壤优先流路径和基质路径相差不大，没有显著性差异。而土壤0-10 cm优先流路径中镉、锌浓度显著高于土壤基质路径。同样在垂直带谱森林土壤中，阔叶林土壤和针阔混交林的优先流路径镉平均浓度大于基质流路径概率均为75%，所以结果表明土壤优先流路径对镉在土壤中运移有较强的滞留效应。（4）阔叶林0-10 cm土壤优先流路径根重密度大于土壤基质路径3倍，说明表层和深层阔叶林土壤植物根系对优先流发育贡献率要高于中层土壤。土壤优先流中砾石质量密度和体积密度总体上大于基质流路径，说明砾石对土壤优先流的发生有一定的贡献率。;
With the development of earth's critical zone and Hydropedology, there are two crucial hydropedological researches to be solved in earth's critical zone. The first reaseach is the quantitative expression of preferential flow and soil structure and stratification, water flow in situ and solute transport. The second crucial research is the relationship among soil genesis, soil hydrology and soil changes. Due to the rapid flow characteristics of preferential flow, solute flow do not go through a traditional adsorbed matrix soil colloid process. The atmospheric precipitation and surface runoff path through the preferential flow with rapid solute transport from soil to groundwater, causing water and soil nutrient loss, groundwater pollution. On the other hand, the development of preferential flow changes the runoff process, a strong developed preferential flow even causes geological hazards such as mudslides, landslides and so on. Preferential flow research is not only the key research to the earth's critical zone, but also for the ecological environment and hazards prevention.This thesis introduces the concept, types, migration characteristics, theories, current problems and future trends of preferential flow paths, respectively. We carried out the field work in alpine ecosystem observation and experiment station of Mt. Gongga, Chinese Academy of Sciences and German Saxony Erzgebirge mountains forest Reserve forest. The soil preferential flow is studied by field experiment and dye tracing image analysis and elemental chemical analysis. Furthermore, the distribution, solute transport path and the discipline of soil preferential flow were analyzed systematically including Hailuogou Glacier retreat area and vertical area. Besides, the driving factors of formation of preferential flow were invested. The resluts of the study is have certain theoretical guidance and technical support role of the formed runoff, soil solute migration, surface water and groundwater purification in forest. The results indicates:(1) The soil profile field and indoor dye tracing image analysis results obtained, Hailuogou Glacier Trail Glacier retreat GS1 soil preferential flow in the main stream of micro pores, while in GS2 the soil preferential flow in the soil depth of 20 cm the following matter how large pores or micropores stream flow are difficult to occur. In GS3, soil preferential flow 20 cm soil preferential flow in both the development of large pores and micro pores stream flow. Gongga Mountain region stained soil broadleaf forest is mainly concentrated in the 15 cm soil depth, staining greater than 80%. In the soil depth of 10 cm to 30 cm of the soil staining ratio rises rapidly from 70-85%. Conifer at 0-30 cm soil preferential flow development is more mature than other soil profile.(2) The comparison of phosphorus fractions in soil preferential flow paths of Erzgebirge Mountain and Gongga Mountain, the soil PFPs in Erzgebirge Mountains potentially contain biologically effective soil inorganic phosphorus and occluded phosphorus concentration is much greater than the soil sample Gongga Mountain. Hailuogou Glacier Trail Soil phosphorus forms of preferential flow path analysis found soil preferential flow paths in the high phosphorus content than the organic content of the soil matrix, soil and with the development process, potentially effective phosphorus exhibit obvious differences.(3) In Gongga Mountain Hailuogou Glacier treat area, the soil preferential flow constant vertical band elements and heavy metals found in the soil matrix and preferential flow paths, Na, K, Ca, Mn were no significant differences in the above elements belonging to a conservative solute soil preferential flow paths. The preferential flow paths Fe slightly matrix flow path of preferential flow of Fe limited transport capacity between the conservative solute and solute Fe reaction between soil matrix and preferential flow paths in the path Mg, Al significant difference, is reactive solutes by soil soil process a greater impact. Copper and lead concentrations in the glacier retreat on the Trail Soil preferential flow paths and path matrix or less, there is no significant difference. And 0-10 cm soil preferential flow paths of cadmium and zinc concentrations were significantly higher than the soil matrix path. Also in the vertical band forest soils, preferential flow paths cadmium broadleaf forest and conifer soil concentrations greater than average probability matrix flow paths are 75%, so the results show that soil preferential flow paths Cadmium transport in soil have strong retention effect.(4) In the forest soil of broad-leaved 0-10 cm, the root weight density in preferential flow paths were greater than 3 times than those in the soil matrix path, indicating the surface and deep soil broadleaf forest plant roots on preferential flow development contribution rate is higher than the middle soil. Soil preferential flow in gravel mass density and bulk density greater than the overall flow path on the substrate, indicating the occurrence of gravel soil preferential flow in a certain contribution.
|梁建宏. 典型亚高山森林土壤优先流路径特征与溶质运移[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.|
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