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泥石流对拦砂坝的冲击作用特性试验研究
Alternative TitleExperimental Study on Impct Effect Characteristics of Debris Dams in the Debris Flow
Language中文
赵海鑫
Thesis Advisor游勇
2016
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline建筑与土木工程
Keyword拦砂坝 泥石流 试验 冲击力 冲起高度 库内淤积
Other Abstract

在泥石流冲击拦砂坝过程中,泥石流对拦砂坝的冲击作用主要表现为泥石流冲击力、泥石流冲起高度以及泥石流库内淤积等。泥石流冲击力、冲起高度以及库内淤积的计算是拦砂坝结构设计及安全验算的重要依据。如何在拦砂坝设计时选择合理准确的设计参数,使其达到良好的调控作用效果,是目前急需解决的技术问题。本文通过水槽试验,探究了不同泥石流特性,不同水槽坡度以及不同拦砂坝迎水面坡比的条件组合下泥石流对坝体的冲击力分布及大小变化、泥石流冲起高度变化以及泥石流库内淤积的变化规律,得到以下主要结论:1.通过采集的泥石流冲击力数据结果分析表明:(1)泥石流对坝体冲击力的主要影响因素为泥石流容重和泥石流流速,拟合的拦砂坝受力公式为:P= v。 (2)泥石流冲击拦砂坝过程中,坝体受力的时间分布曲线为“针峰型”,峰值大小同泥石流流速有关,在一定流速值下,“针峰”消失。(3)在同一泥深下,坝体横向受力的分布规律为二次抛物线:P=c·x2-(B/2)2·c,参数c通过试验数据拟合为:c=-0.0192ln(vc)-0.0268。(4)通过已有泥石流冲击力计算公式和泥石流流速横向纵向分布规律提出一种空间内任意一点位泥石流冲击力的计算方法。2.从理论上修正了原有冲起高度计算公式,采用泥石流表面流速并结合宾汉体模型和碰撞体模型得到新的泥石流冲起高度计算公式:通过水槽试验测得的泥石流冲起高度数据对以上公式进行验证,得到计算值与试验值吻合较好,并对公式的适用性进行讨论。3.通过拦砂坝库内泥石流横向淤积的试验数据可知:(1)对于稀性泥石流,泥石流横向淤积曲线较平,靠近拦砂坝位置处的库内横向淤积曲线可以认为是直线;远离拦砂坝位置处的横向淤积曲线表现为中间高,两边低的形式。(2)对于粘性泥石流,泥石流横向淤积曲线不均匀分布相对于稀性泥石流较明显,表现为中间低,两边高的横向淤积分布;且随着泥石流到拦砂坝的距离越近,其横向淤积呈抛物线越明显;泥石流越远离拦砂坝,其横向淤积呈抛物线型越不明显。

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The parameters of the impact force of the debris flow and the super-elevation of the debris flow rushed up as well as the deposition in reservoir are important basis for structure design and safety check to debris dam in the process of debris flow impacted the debris dam. How to choose the reasonable technology parameters for debris dam design, which can make a good result, is a technical problem urgently needing to solve in the present. This paper based on the flume experiment, explores the impact distribution of debris on the dam body and size changes, discusses the super-elevation of debris flow rushed up with the change of debris flow characteristics as well as the channel angle and so on, explores the situation of the deposition in reservoir ,following main conclusions: 1. Through the collection of debris flow impact data results show that: (1) the main influence factors of debris flow dam impact for debris flow density flow velocity, and fitting the silt dam stress formula is: P= v. (2) the impact debris flow in the process of the silt dam, dam body stress distribution curve of time for "needle peak" type, peak value related to debris flow velocity, under a certain velocity values, "needle peak" disappear. (3) in the same deep under the mud, dam transverse stress distribution law of quadratic parabola: P=cx2-(B/2)2c, the parameter c through experimental data fitting for: c=-0.0192ln(vc)-0.0268. (4) the formula for computing the existing debris flow impact flow velocity of transverse and longitudinal distribution in this paper, a spatial calculation method of an arbitrary point within the debris flow impact. 2. The height of the original rushed up the revised the theoretical computing formula, using bingham body surface velocity of debris flow and get the new model and the collision model sent mudslides height calculation formula: Through flume experiment measured mudslides rushed up the height data to validate the above formula, get accord well with those of calculation value and experimental value, and to the discussion of the applicability of the formula. 3. Through the debris flow deposition of silt dam test data shows: (1) for loose debris flow, debris flow horizontal sedimentation curve is relatively flat, close to the Chambers of the silt dam location of horizontal sedimentation curve can be thought of as a straight line; Away from the location of silt dam horizontal sedimentation curve of high, middle low on both sides of the form. (2) for the viscous debris flow, debris flow horizontal sedimentation curve uneven distribution relative to dilute debris flow more apparent, characterized by low, middle high on both sides of horizontal sedimentation distribution; And the closer the distance as the debris flow to silt dam, its horizontal sedimentation is parabola, the more obvious; Debris flow is far away from the silt dam, the less the horizontal sedimentation is parabolic, may be unilateral tilt state. 

Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/18983
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵海鑫. 泥石流对拦砂坝的冲击作用特性试验研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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