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三峡库区堰塘水服务功能研究—以万州区陈家沟小流域为例
Alternative TitleResearch on water services of pond in Three Gorges Reservoir area —A case study on Chenjiagou watershed
Language中文
马晓燕
Thesis Advisor王玉宽
2016
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Other Abstract

三峡库区是我国重要的生态功能区,库区的水环境受到广泛关注。堰塘作为流域农业生态系统的重要组成部分,其在库区广泛分布,对农业生产与居民生活具有重要支撑作用。堰塘作为流域水系的关键节点,不仅直接影响区域水环境,更对整个流域水文过程具有重要影响作用。当前对堰塘服务功能的研究多集中于面源污染控制、区域水量调节方面,对堰塘的空间分布及其变化趋势缺乏相关研究,对堰塘的综合服务缺乏深入了解。本文以三峡库区中部的陈家沟小流域为研究区,通过无人机航拍与农户调查相结合获取堰塘及其集水区基础数据,采用空间分析方法明确堰塘的功能类型与空间分布,利用定位监测和模型评估分析堰塘的关键生态系统服务,得到如下结论:(1)研究区内现有堰塘159口,总面积为0.1209 km2,占流域总面积的1.48%,分布密度为19.4口/km2,其平均面积为760 m2,面积主要分布在100~1000 m2的范围内,面积差异较大。堰塘的空间分布受坡度、海拔、居民点与耕地分布的共同影响,其主要分布于海拔350~550m、坡度5~25°、距居民区20~80m的流域中下部区域内,在耕地集中区域内分布更集中。(2)根据堰塘的主要服务对象与主导服务功能将堰塘划分为四种功能类型,养殖型为流域堰塘的主要组成部分,其数目与面积分别占堰塘总数的63.25%、42.90%,其次为综合利用型堰塘(20.13%、38.93%),而单一功能的灌溉型、饮用水型分布较少。堰塘数量在空间分布方面具有一定的规律,但其功能类型在空间分布方面差异不显著。(3)堰塘数目的变化主要发生在50~60年代以及90年代之后,其数量、功能的变化与生产条件、社会经济环境密切相关。堰塘数目变化在50~60年代主要以满足农业生产需求为主;90年代之后,劳动力迁移、种植模式变化等社会、经济因素成为堰塘数目、功能变化的主要驱动因素。堰塘数量、功能类型的变化在一定程度上反映了三峡库区农村劳动力迁移背景下农户家庭经济结构与生计策略的转变。(4)水资源供给为堰塘的基础服务功能,对研究区农业生产与居民生活具有重要作用。灌溉型堰塘年平均供水量为1063.56m3,全年供水量约为16035.56m3;综合型堰塘年平均供水量为2791.56 m3,全年供水量约为92121.48m3;饮用型堰塘直接或间接向研究区内30%的居民提供生活用水,年供水量约为20000m3;养殖型堰塘仅用于淡水鱼类养殖,大多数不具备灌溉功能。(5)堰塘水产养殖作为研究区内新兴产业对于研究区内农户生计状况改善具有重要的作用。堰塘的养殖状况受堰塘基本特征、管理状况等多方面因素共同影响。研究区内养殖型堰塘年平均收益约为589.2 kg/hm2,综合利用型堰塘年平均收益约为3666.8 kg/hm2,均远高于传统种植业。堰塘养殖在改善农村生计状况的同时,在一定程度上丰富了居民文化生活,对农村居民物质、文化生活的改善具有积极作用。(6)堰塘对流域的水文调节作用与其空间分布密切相关,与其自身功能类型关联度较小。养殖型堰塘对流域的水文调节作用较小,而灌溉型、饮用水型与综合利用型堰塘对流域水文具有明显的调节作用。在流域范围内,堰塘年洪水拦蓄量约为20万m3,占流域全年洪水量的12.16 %;堰塘年泥沙拦截量约为146.72 t,占径流泥沙输移量的17%;在养分拦截方面,堰塘对径流水体中氮、磷的拦截量分别为2093.59kg、50.18kg,占流域年氮、磷输出总量的16.14%、14.35%。因此,堰塘对研究区环境建设具有重要的意义。(7)堰塘的生态系统服务丰富多样,并且随时间发生快速变化。但本文由于监测数量和时间有限,仅能对部分生态服务进行分析。下一步需要加强对水文过程的监测,补充监测数据,完善评估参数,增加不同类型堰塘的研究。

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The Three Gorges Reservoir Ecological Functional Area is of strategic importance in China, so its water environment security has gained extensive attention.As an important part of farmland ecosystem, pond has a wide distribution in Three Gorges Reservoirarea and play an important role in agricultural production and the farmer's livelihood. In addition, the runoff and sediment processes have become one of the standards of determining a watershed's aquatic environment and effect local eco-hydrological patterns. The processes of runoff and sediment always connected with the ponds closely. However, some problems remains in the research of the ecosystem services of pond, such as analyzing the spatial distribution and variation, highlighting the key function of ecosystem service and understanding the relationship between ponds and human well-being. Using the method spatial analysis, location monitoring and evaluation model based on the UVA data and farmer questionnaires, this article aims to inform on the spatial variations and changing trends of ponds, over as long a period with instrumental data as possible, while also calculating and emphasizing their critical function of ecosystem services in the Chenjiagou watershed. The results illustrate that: (1) There are 159 ponds in the study area, with a gross area of 0.1209 km2, covering 1.47% of the watershed, with the density 19.4 per km2. There are great difference in ponds' area in the range of 100~1000 m2 and 760 m2 normally. The distribution of ponds is affected by attitude, slope, their distance from residential settlement and cultivated land. Ponds are distributed mainly in the middle and estuary region of the watershed, with the elevation between 350-550 m, the gradient between 5-25° of slope and the distance between 20-80 m from the rural settlement and it is more concentrated in the cultivated area.(2) According to the practical application, ponds are divided into four types. Aquatic production is the main type of ponds, its number and area accounted for 63.25%, 42.90% of the total ponds respectively, followed bycomprehensive (20.13%, 38.93%), less irrigation and drinking distribution, and some abandonment located in the upper region of sub-watersheds. The distribution of ponds has a certain regularity, while their function differences may be not significant in space.(3) The amount of the ponds is increasing mainly in the 1950s to 1960s and later 1990s. The changes in number and function of the ponds is closely related to the socio-economic environment. Amount of ponds is closely related to agricultural production needs between 1950s and 1960s;and the factors of society and economy, such as labor migration, cropping patterns and so on, become the drive factors of thechanges of number and function of ponds after 1990s. The amount and functionchanges reflected economic structure and livelihood strategies changes under the background of rural labormigration,provided a reference for the study of rural economic structure.(4) Water supply is the basic ecosystem service of ponds except the aquacultureponds. The irrigation ponds provide 16035.56 m3 water to paddy, with an average of1063.56 m3; the comprehensive ponds offer 92121.48 m3 water, with an average of2791.56 m3. Drinking ponds provide water to 30% of the resident in the watershed, the volume of water is 20000 m3 per year. Therefore, ponds play an important role in agricultural production and farmers’ livelihood. (5) As an emerging agriculture, aquaculture appears prospective in reducingpoverty and improving livelihoods in the study area. The condition of aquaculture was effected by the basic characteristics, management conditions and other factors. The average net income ofaquaculture pond is 58668.4 yuan per hectare and the comprehensive pond is 41229.1 yuanper hectare, well above traditional crop production. Aquaculture may change the living condition and rich the cultural life.To a certain extent, it may have a positive effect on rural material and culture life.(6) In terms of hydrological regulation, the function of aquaculture ponds is weak,and the function of other ponds is more relevant to their geographical location thanservices function. In the hydrological process, ponds may store flood discharge 200,000 m3, accounting for 12.16% of the annual flood yield; ponds may storesediment 146.72 t, accounting for 17.00% of the full year output; ponds may interceptnitrogen 2093.59 kg, phosphorus 50.18 kg, accounting for 16.14%, 14.37% of the fullyear output; In conclusion, ponds has important implications for environment construction.(7) The ecosystem services of ponds are rich and varied, and those function arechanging rapidly over time. Since the limitation of monitoring stations and time period, only part of the ecosystem service functions could be analyzed. Further studies should focus on improving the monitoring work of hydrological processes, supplementing data, improve the evaluation parameters and increasing the types of ponds. 

Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/18988
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
马晓燕. 三峡库区堰塘水服务功能研究—以万州区陈家沟小流域为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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