|Alternative Title||Study on the partition of construction of eco-clean small watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area ─take wuqiaohe small watershed as example|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||三峡库区 五桥河小流域 生态清洁小流域 土壤侵蚀 非点源污染|
Human survival and development is inseparable from water and soil resources. In the current deterioration of water quality, soil erosion is severe and harsh living environment is increasingly grim situation, the effective protection of soil and water resources, improve the living environment, the construction of a virtuous cycle of river basin ecosystems and population, resources and environmental development of harmonious society become an important task.The three gorges reservoir area is both important and typical ecologically fragile area. With the continuous development of social economy, the three gorges reservoir ecological environment problems appear new features. The environmental pollution problems become complex and diverse, with pure water loss and soil erosion control as the center of the traditional small watershed comprehensive management already cannot adapt to demand of the sustainable development and ecological civilization construction. ecological clean small watershed construction is based on the small watershed comprehensive development and improvement, proposed an innovative concept of small watershed comprehensive treatment. The goal is within the effective protection and rational utilization of small watershed water and soil resources, keep the river (trench), natural condition, human disturbance to natural does not exceed ecosystem carrying capacity, ecosystem benign circulation, coordinated development of population, resources and environment. Therefore, the three gorges reservoir area small watershed comprehensive harness must be deepened and perfected under the new circumstances, work hard to build the reservoir ecological clean small watershed research, to promote the reservoir area ecological environment construction and protection, social and economic sustainable development to provide strong support.Through the establishment of small watershed different partitions, according to the partition of the prevention and control of the concept, adjust measures to local conditions for technical measures configuration is an important part of the study of ecological clean small watershed. This study area is located in the middle of the three gorges reservoir area of Chongqing wan Zhou district Wuqiaohe watershed, collected topography, weather, hydrology, soil, vegetation, land use, social economy and ecological environment in the study area. In fully understand the natural geographic and ecological environment in the study area, based on the conducted Wuqiaohe river ecological clean small watershed partition research. Research contents mainly include basic data collection and processing, the index system to construct ecological clean small watershed, and partition configuration and measures. Research is proposed to solve the key problem is to construct Wuqiaohe river ecological clean small watershed construction zoning index system (including the index weight and relative index calculated on the basis of factor value, ecological clean small watershed partition method in the study area is determined. The results indicated that:(1) Index system of ecological clean small watershed construction partition: Under the guidance of scientific principles, feasibility, qualitative and quantitative, after analysis, through soil erosion, water source protection zones, nonpoint source pollution, human factors guidelines for activities to establish layer construction index system partition Wuqiao River ecological clean small watershed it works. Among them, soil erosion factor by slope, vegetation cover and slope of arable land, according to the national water industry standards "Standards of classification of soil erosion (SL192-2007)" Evaluation of Soil Erosion intensity expression; reservoir water source protection areas by size, from the reservoir distance, according to the national water protection standards for environmental protection "drinking water source protection zone technical specifications (HJT338-2007)" will be divided into a protected area, two protected areas and potential protected areas; nonpoint source pollution by DEM land use and soil types, the use of non-point source pollution assessment to determine the equation MUSLE study area non-point source pollution risk level for expression; human activity factor with human activities (HAILS) formula obtained.On the basis of the integrated use of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the index scale method to obtain soil erosion, water conservation, non-point source pollution and human activities into four categories Guidelines factor weights are 0.2695, 0.3292, 0.2206, and 0.1807.(2) Ecological clean small watershed building partitions results: After obtaining the intensity of soil erosion, water conservation district, nonpoint source pollution risk level and intensity of human activity results, in accordance with the appropriate classification standard, the mild, moderate, strong, very strong and severe erosion intensity were assigned 1,2,3, 4,5; a water source protection areas, two water source protection areas and potential protected areas were assigned 1,2,3; non-point source pollution in low, medium, high, and high-risk areas were assigned 1,2,3,4 ; human activity low, medium, high strength and high respectively assigned 1,2,3,4. To calculate criteria weights, the use of GIS spatial analysis tools weighted to give the Wuqiao River ecological clean small watershed construction of the partition quantitative value interval [1.001,3.5729], using natural break point grading method (Jenks) divided the quantitative value [1.001,1.8718], [1.8718,2.29718], [2.2971,3.5729] into three parts, and analyzes the distribution characteristics of different numerical taxonomy regional space. Due to calculate Wuqiao river ecological clean small watershed partition quantitative numerical continuity, leading to its quantitative numerical classification figure appeared more pieces of small patches, using ENVI software of small plaque removal tool to quantitative numerical classification diagram pieces of small patches to merge, obtain ideal results.Comprehensive quantitative numerical classification of regional characteristics analysis and small patch merging processing results; will eventually Wuqiao river ecological clean small watershed partition is divided into the comprehensive ecological restoration area, integrated control area and ecological buffer area. Among them, the ecological restoration area covers an area of 55.40 km2, accounting for 48.51% of the basin area, mainly distributed in the basin upstream and high altitude area, the intensity of human activities for low and moderate intensity, less interference by human activities in the area, land use types are mainly of woodland and garden plot, high vegetation coverage, soil erosion intensity is given priority to with mild and moderate, non-point source pollution are mainly low risk area. Integrated control area of 44.84 km2, accounting for 41.88% of the area of the basin, are mainly distributed in the basin in the middle and lower reaches and river on both sides of the area, the intensity of human activities in the area of higher and higher, more interference by human activities, soil erosion intensity is given priority to with mild and moderate, more than a few scattered strong and erosion intensity, vegetation coverage is low, the corresponding land use types have cultivated land, residents and garden, non-point source pollution is higher risk area and high risk area mainly concentrated in the area. Ecological buffer area of 10.97 km2, accounting for 9.60% of the basin area, mainly distributed in the surrounding of the channel, land use types mainly for unused, the non-point source pollution risk is higher.(3) Ecological clean small watershed construction discuss: Ecological restoration area should be carried out comprehensive measures such as afforestation, ecological immigration, reduce the human activities and interference, give full play to the self-healing function of ecological system. Integrated control area of intense human disturbance, complex ecological environmental problems, consideration should be given full, take various measures to comprehensive treatment, and the main measures include channel management, slope protection engineering, the storing engineering, agricultural engineering construction and living environment improvement, etc. Ecological buffer area have the function of the absorb pollutants, nonpoint source pollution risk is higher, and serious soil erosion, mainly to take protective dam, the river shore (library) with governance, wetland restoration, river (trench), clean up the four measures.Research conclusion made up for the three gorges reservoir area ecological clean small watershed of the shortcomings of the research, as the reservoir area of soil and water conservation, soil and water conservation and utilization of resources to provide support, also for the future of the implementation of ecological clean small watershed construction to lay a good foundation.
|张鹏. 三峡库区生态清洁小流域建设分区研究——以五桥河小流域为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.|
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