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三峡库区生态清洁小流域建设分区研究——以五桥河小流域为例
Alternative TitleStudy on the partition of construction of eco-clean small watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area ─take wuqiaohe small watershed as example
Language中文
张鹏
Thesis Advisor廖晓勇
2016
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword三峡库区 五桥河小流域 生态清洁小流域 土壤侵蚀 非点源污染
Other Abstract

类生存和发展离不开水土资源。在当前水质恶化、水土流失严重及人居环境恶劣等问题越来越严峻的形势下,有效保护水土资源,改善人居环境,建设良好流域生态环境系统及人口、资源、环境协调发展的和谐社会成为当前的紧迫任务。三峡库区既是重要水源地,又是典型生态脆弱区。随着三峡库区社会经济的发展,库区生态环境问题出现了新的特征,环境污染问题变得复杂多样,以单纯的水土流失控制为中心的传统小流域综合治理已经不能适应库区可持续发展及生态文明建设的需求。生态清洁小流域是在小流域综合治理发展与完善基础上,提出的一种具有创新性的小流域综合治理模式,其目标是实现小流域内水土资源得到有效保护及合理利用,河(沟)道维持自然状态,人类对自然的扰动不超过生态系统承载力,生态系统良性循环,人口、资源、环境协调发展。因此,三峡库区以小流域为单元的综合治理必须在新的形势下加以深化和完善,深入开展库区生态清洁小流域建设研究工作,对促进库区生态环境建设与保护、社会经济持续发展具有重要意义。通过建立小流域不同分区,按照分区防治的理念,因地制宜进行技术措施配置是生态清洁小流域建设研究的重要内容。本研究选取三峡库区中部的重庆市万州区五桥河小流域为研究对象,收集了研究区地质地貌、土壤植被、气象水文、土地利用、社会经济、生态环境等资料,在充分了解研究区自然地理与生态环境基础上,开展五桥河生态清洁小流域建设分区研究。研究主要从基础资料的收集和处理、生态清洁小流域建设分区指标体系构筑、分区及措施探讨四个方面展开。研究拟解决的关键问题是构筑五桥河生态清洁小流域建设分区的指标体系(包括指标权重及相关指标因子值计算),确定研究区生态清洁小流域建设分区方法。研究结果表明:(1)生态清洁小流域建设分区的指标体系:在科学性、可行性、定性和定量相结合的原则指导下,经过分析,通过土壤侵蚀、水源保护区、非点源污染、人类活动四类准则层因子建立五桥河生态清洁小流域建设分区指标体系是可行的。其中,土壤侵蚀因子通过坡度、植被覆盖度及坡耕地等,参照国家水利行业标准《土壤侵蚀分类分级标准(SL192-2007)》评价研究区土壤侵蚀强度表达;水源保护区通过水库规模、距水库距离等,依据水源保护国家环境保护标准《饮用水水源地保护区划分技术规范(HJT338-2007)》将其划分为一级保护区、二级保护区和准保护区;非点源污染通过DEM、土地利用及土壤类型等,采用非点源污染评价方程MUSLE确定研究区非点源污染风险高低进行表达;人类活动因子用人类活动强度(HAILS)公式计算得到。在综合应用层次分析法(AHP)及指数标度法基础上,获得土壤侵蚀、水源保护、非点源污染及人类活动四类准则因子权重分别为0.2695、0.3292、0.2206、0.1807。(2)生态清洁小流域建设分区结果:得到土壤侵蚀强度、水源保护分区、非点源污染风险等级及人类活动强度结果后,依据相应分级标准,将轻度、中度、强烈、极强烈及剧烈侵蚀强度分别赋值1、2、3、4、5;一级水源保护区、二级水源保护区及准保护区分别赋值1、2、3;非点源污染低、中等、较高及高风险区分别赋值1、2、3、4;人类活动低、中等、较高及高强度分别赋值1、2、3、4。结合已计算到的准则权重,利用GIS空间分析工具加权计算,得到五桥河生态清洁小流域建设分区定量数值区间为[1.001,3.5729],采用自然间断点分级法(Jenks)将该定量数值分为[1.001,1.8718]、 [1.8718,2.29718] 、[2.2971,3.5729]三部分,并分析了不同定量数值分类区域空间分布特征。由于计算得到的五桥河生态清洁小流域建设分区定量数值具有连续性,导致其定量数值分类图出现了较多零碎的小斑块,利用ENVI软件的小斑块去除工具将定量数值分类图中零碎的小斑块合并,获得理想的处理结果。综合定量数值分类区域特征分析及小斑块合并处理结果,最终合理的将五桥河生态清洁小流域建设分区划为生态修复区、综合治理区及生态缓冲区。其中,生态修复区面积为55.40km2,占流域面积的48.51%,主要分布在流域上游、海拔较高地区,人类活动强度为低、中等强度,该区受人类活动干扰较少,土地利用类型主要为林地及园地,植被覆盖度较高,土壤侵蚀强度以轻度及中度为主,非点源污染主要为低风险区;综合治理区面积为44.84km2,占流域面积的41.88%,主要分布在流域中下游及河道两侧区域,该区人类活动强度为较高、高,受人类活动干扰较多,土壤侵蚀强度以轻度及中度为主,少量分布着强烈及以上侵蚀强度,植被覆盖度较低,对应土地利用类型有耕地、居民地及园地,非点源污染较高风险区及高风险区主要集中在该区域;生态缓冲区面积为10.97 km2,占流域面积的9.60%,主要分布在河道周边,土地利用类型主要为未利用地,该区非点源污染风险较高。(3)生态清洁小流域建设措施探讨:生态修复区应实行全面封山育林、生态移民等措施,减少人为活动和干扰,充分发挥区内生态系统的自我修复功能;综合治理区人类活动干扰强烈,生态环境问题复杂,应考虑全面,采取多种措施综合治理,主要措施包括沟道治理、护坡工程、引蓄工程、农耕工程建设、人居环境整治等;生态缓冲区具有吸纳污染物的作用,区内非点源污染风险较高、土壤侵蚀较严重,主要采取防护坝、河岸(库滨)带治理、湿地恢复、河(沟)道清理4项措施。 研究结论弥补了三峡库区生态清洁小流域建设研究方面的不足,为更有效的进行研究区生态环境保护提供支撑,也为今后库区实施生态清洁小流域建设打下良好基础。

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Human survival and development is inseparable from water and soil resources. In the current deterioration of water quality, soil erosion is severe and harsh living environment is increasingly grim situation, the effective protection of soil and water resources, improve the living environment, the construction of a virtuous cycle of river basin ecosystems and population, resources and environmental development of harmonious society become an important task.The three gorges reservoir area is both important and typical ecologically fragile area. With the continuous development of social economy, the three gorges reservoir ecological environment problems appear new features. The environmental pollution problems become complex and diverse, with pure water loss and soil erosion control as the center of the traditional small watershed comprehensive management already cannot adapt to demand of the sustainable development and ecological civilization construction. ecological clean small watershed construction is based on the small watershed comprehensive development and improvement, proposed an innovative concept of small watershed comprehensive treatment. The goal is within the effective protection and rational utilization of small watershed water and soil resources, keep the river (trench), natural condition, human disturbance to natural does not exceed ecosystem carrying capacity, ecosystem benign circulation, coordinated development of population, resources and environment. Therefore, the three gorges reservoir area small watershed comprehensive harness must be deepened and perfected under the new circumstances, work hard to build the reservoir ecological clean small watershed research, to promote the reservoir area ecological environment construction and protection, social and economic sustainable development to provide strong support.Through the establishment of small watershed different partitions, according to the partition of the prevention and control of the concept, adjust measures to local conditions for technical measures configuration is an important part of the study of ecological clean small watershed. This study area is located in the middle of the three gorges reservoir area of Chongqing wan Zhou district Wuqiaohe watershed, collected topography, weather, hydrology, soil, vegetation, land use, social economy and ecological environment in the study area. In fully understand the natural geographic and ecological environment in the study area, based on the conducted Wuqiaohe river ecological clean small watershed partition research. Research contents mainly include basic data collection and processing, the index system to construct ecological clean small watershed, and partition configuration and measures. Research is proposed to solve the key problem is to construct Wuqiaohe river ecological clean small watershed construction zoning index system (including the index weight and relative index calculated on the basis of factor value, ecological clean small watershed partition method in the study area is determined. The results indicated that:(1) Index system of ecological clean small watershed construction partition: Under the guidance of scientific principles, feasibility, qualitative and quantitative, after analysis, through soil erosion, water source protection zones, nonpoint source pollution, human factors guidelines for activities to establish layer construction index system partition Wuqiao River ecological clean small watershed it works. Among them, soil erosion factor by slope, vegetation cover and slope of arable land, according to the national water industry standards "Standards of classification of soil erosion (SL192-2007)" Evaluation of Soil Erosion intensity expression; reservoir water source protection areas by size, from the reservoir distance, according to the national water protection standards for environmental protection "drinking water source protection zone technical specifications (HJT338-2007)" will be divided into a protected area, two protected areas and potential protected areas; nonpoint source pollution by DEM land use and soil types, the use of non-point source pollution assessment to determine the equation MUSLE study area non-point source pollution risk level for expression; human activity factor with human activities (HAILS) formula obtained.On the basis of the integrated use of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the index scale method to obtain soil erosion, water conservation, non-point source pollution and human activities into four categories Guidelines factor weights are 0.2695, 0.3292, 0.2206, and 0.1807.(2) Ecological clean small watershed building partitions results: After obtaining the intensity of soil erosion, water conservation district, nonpoint source pollution risk level and intensity of human activity results, in accordance with the appropriate classification standard, the mild, moderate, strong, very strong and severe erosion intensity were assigned 1,2,3, 4,5; a water source protection areas, two water source protection areas and potential protected areas were assigned 1,2,3; non-point source pollution in low, medium, high, and high-risk areas were assigned 1,2,3,4 ; human activity low, medium, high strength and high respectively assigned 1,2,3,4. To calculate criteria weights, the use of GIS spatial analysis tools weighted to give the Wuqiao River ecological clean small watershed construction of the partition quantitative value interval [1.001,3.5729], using natural break point grading method (Jenks) divided the quantitative value [1.001,1.8718], [1.8718,2.29718], [2.2971,3.5729] into three parts, and analyzes the distribution characteristics of different numerical taxonomy regional space. Due to calculate Wuqiao river ecological clean small watershed partition quantitative numerical continuity, leading to its quantitative numerical classification figure appeared more pieces of small patches, using ENVI software of small plaque removal tool to quantitative numerical classification diagram pieces of small patches to merge, obtain ideal results.Comprehensive quantitative numerical classification of regional characteristics analysis and small patch merging processing results; will eventually Wuqiao river ecological clean small watershed partition is divided into the comprehensive ecological restoration area, integrated control area and ecological buffer area. Among them, the ecological restoration area covers an area of 55.40 km2, accounting for 48.51% of the basin area, mainly distributed in the basin upstream and high altitude area, the intensity of human activities for low and moderate intensity, less interference by human activities in the area, land use types are mainly of woodland and garden plot, high vegetation coverage, soil erosion intensity is given priority to with mild and moderate, non-point source pollution are mainly low risk area. Integrated control area of 44.84 km2, accounting for 41.88% of the area of the basin, are mainly distributed in the basin in the middle and lower reaches and river on both sides of the area, the intensity of human activities in the area of higher and higher, more interference by human activities, soil erosion intensity is given priority to with mild and moderate, more than a few scattered strong and erosion intensity, vegetation coverage is low, the corresponding land use types have cultivated land, residents and garden, non-point source pollution is higher risk area and high risk area mainly concentrated in the area. Ecological buffer area of 10.97 km2, accounting for 9.60% of the basin area, mainly distributed in the surrounding of the channel, land use types mainly for unused, the non-point source pollution risk is higher.(3) Ecological clean small watershed construction discuss: Ecological restoration area should be carried out comprehensive measures such as afforestation, ecological immigration, reduce the human activities and interference, give full play to the self-healing function of ecological system. Integrated control area of intense human disturbance, complex ecological environmental problems, consideration should be given full, take various measures to comprehensive treatment, and the main measures include channel management, slope protection engineering, the storing engineering, agricultural engineering construction and living environment improvement, etc. Ecological buffer area have the function of the absorb pollutants, nonpoint source pollution risk is higher, and serious soil erosion, mainly to take protective dam, the river shore (library) with governance, wetland restoration, river (trench), clean up the four measures.Research conclusion made up for the three gorges reservoir area ecological clean small watershed of the shortcomings of the research, as the reservoir area of soil and water conservation, soil and water conservation and utilization of resources to provide support, also for the future of the implementation of ecological clean small watershed construction to lay a good foundation. 

Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/18991
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张鹏. 三峡库区生态清洁小流域建设分区研究——以五桥河小流域为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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