金沙江下游干流区泥石流滑坡时空变化及其对水电工程的影响
其他题名Temporal-spatial variation and its influence on hydropower projections in mainstream of Jinsha River
刘洪江
导师崔鹏 ; 韦方强
2008
学位授予单位中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
学位授予地点成都
学位名称博士
学位专业自然地理学
关键词季节变化 Tp Codmn Bod5 金沙江 岷江和长江
摘要总磷(TP)、高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)和5日生化需氧量(BOD5)是评价水体水质的重要指标。随着河流、湖泊等水体污染问题的日益突出,国内主要河流和湖泊水体相继开展了这些指标的监测。上世纪50年代,水利部门就开展了长江水质的取样监测;上世纪80年代以来,环保部门对长江主要河段的水质进行系统的取样监测,宜宾市环境监测中心站负责宜宾附近金沙江、岷江和长江三江水质的取样监测。长江上游三峡水库河段和中下游河水的这三个水质指标已多有报导,但三峡水库以上的长江干流河段鲜有报导。论文分析了宜宾附近金沙江、岷江和长江2001-2005年TP、CODMn和BOD5含量的季节性变化,并对其变化原因进行了初步讨论。主要研究结论如下:(1)金沙江和岷江的TP和BOD5含量的季节性变化规律基本一致。金沙江和岷江的丰水期/平水期/枯水期的TP含量比值分别为1/0.74/0.43和1/0.59/0.73。两江TP含量丰水期高于平水期和枯水期,主要是由于丰水期含沙量高的缘故。(2)金沙江和岷江的丰水期/平水期/枯水期的BOD5含量比值分别为1/0.84/1.45和1/1.30/3.38。岷江BOD5含量的枯水期/丰水期比值3.38远高于金沙江的1.45,是岷江中游成都平原和下游乐山-宜宾丘陵区人口稠密区的污染物排放量大的缘故。金沙江丰水期的BOD5含量高于平水期,可能和丰水期河水含沙量高,泥沙含有机物有关。(3)金沙江和岷江CODMn含量的季节性变化差异较大。金沙江丰水期>平水期>枯水期,比值为1/0.74/0.43;金沙江的CODMn含量的季节性变化,和TP一样,主要受含沙量的影响。岷江CODMn含量,丰水期和枯水期高,平水期低,比值为1/0.74/1.08。岷江丰水期高,和含沙量有关;枯水期高,和河水污染严重有关。(4)长江挂弓山断面的CODMn、TP和BOD5含量的季节性变化基本同金沙江。BOD5含量季节变化,枯水期高,丰水期和平水期低,丰水期/平水期/枯水期的比值为1/1.14/1.98; CODMn季节变化,丰水期高于平水期和枯水期,丰水期/平水期/枯水期比值为1/0.52/0.60;TP季节变化,丰水期高于平水期和枯水期,丰水期/平水期/枯水期比值为1/0.59/0.37。TP和CODMn丰水期高,同样是由于泥沙含量高的缘故;平水期BOD5含量高于丰水期可能是受岷江影响的缘故。(5)长江宜宾挂弓山断面的TP含量高于朱沱断面,显然是宜宾段长江的含沙量高于下游三峡库首段的缘故;CODMn含量,丰水期略高于、平水期和枯水期略低于三峡库首的朱沱断面,可能和两断面径流和含沙量的季节性变化有所差异有关;BOD5含量远低于朱沱断面,显然是宜宾-朱沱河段接纳了沱江等四川盆地支流汇入的大量污染物质的缘故。
其他摘要TP, CODMn and BOD5 are very important parameters for evaluating water quality. With the increasingly prominent of water pollution problems in rivers, lakes and other water, rivers and lakes of water bodies in our country have been monitored. In the 1950s, the water conservancy department began to monitor water quality of the Yangtze River by sampling.Since the 1980s, environmental protection departments has begin to monitor water quality by sampling systems on the Yangtze river . Yibin environmental monitoring Centre was responsible for environmental monitoring of water quality by sampling near Yibin Jinshajing River, Minjiang River and the Yangtze River .The water quality of these three parameters in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the middle and lower reaches of the Three Gorges reservoir have been reported frequencyly, but it was reported freshly above the Three Gorges Reservoir in Yangtze River Reachs. Seasonal variation characteristics and the causations of main pollutants including TP, CODMn and BOD5 from 2001 to 2005 in the surface water of the Minjiang River, Jinshajiang River and Changjiang River nearby YiBin City are reported in this 批aper .(1)The results show that seasonal variations of TP and BOD5 concentrations in Minjiang River and Jinshajiang River were was similar. The ratios of TP concentrations between flood season, normal water season and dry season were 1/0.74/0.43 and 1/0.59/0.73, respectively. The TP concentrations in flood seasons were greater than in normal water seasons and dry seasons, because high suspended sediment concentrations in flood seasons.(2)The ratios of BOD5 concentrations between flood seasons ,normal water seasons and dry seasons were in Jinshajiang River and Minjiang River were 1/0.84/1.45 and 1/1.30/3.38, respectively. The ratio of BOD5 concentration between flood seasons and dry seasons was 3.38 in Minjiang River, which is higher than the ratio of 1.45 in Jinshajiang River, because of a huge amount of delivering pollutants from Chengdu Plain in the middle reaches and in the lower reaches between Leshan and Yibin in Minjiang River. The higher BOD5 concentrations in flood seasons than in normal water seasons in Jinshajiang River were caused by high concentrations of suspended sediments with, which contants organic matter.(3)Seasonal variations of the CODMn concentrations in Jinshajiang River and Minjiang River had different patterns. The ratios of CODMn concentrations between flood seasons, normal water seasons and dry seasons in Jinshajiang River and Minjiang River were 1/0.74/0.43 and 1/0.74/1.08, respectively. As TP concentrations, seasonal variations of CODMn concentrations in the Jinshajiang River were caused by variations of suspended sediment concentrations. The higher CODMn concentrations in flood seasons were related to the higher suspended sediment concentration; those in dry seasons were related to severe water pollution. (4)Seasonal variations of TP,CODMn and BOD5 concentrations in Changjiang River and Jinshajiang River were was similar. The ratios of TP, CODMn and BOD5 concentrations between flood seasons, normal water seasons and dry seasons in Changjiang River were 1/0.59/0.37, 1/0.52/0.60and 1/1.14/1.98, respectively. The higher TP and CODMn concentrations in flood seasons were related to the higher suspended sediment concentration. The higher BOD5 concentrations in normal water seasons were related to Minjiang River. (5)concentrations of TP at the Guagongshan monitoring section in YiBin was higher than those of Zhutuo monitoring section, because high suspended sediment concentrations in Guagongshan monitoring section. concentrations of CODMn was slightly higher in flood seasons and it was slightly lower in in dry seasons and in normal water seasons than those of zhutuo monitoring section, because of the difference of seasonal changes of sediment and runoff between the two sections. BOD5 concentrations at the Zhutuo monitoring section were higher than at the Guagongshan monitoring section in YiBin, because a huge amount of pollutants delivered into Changjiang River from the Sichuan Basin through TuoJiang River and other tributaries.
学科领域灾害学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/2220
专题成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘洪江. 金沙江下游干流区泥石流滑坡时空变化及其对水电工程的影响[D]. 成都. 中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所,2008.
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