IMHE OpenIR  > 山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
强震对泥石流物源量的影响研究
Alternative TitleThe influence of strong earthquake on debris flow provenance research
陈成
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor胡凯衡
2017
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline岩土工程
Keyword泥石流 地震滑坡 地质灾害链 物源
Abstract发生在山岳地区浅源强震,往往会引发大量的地震山地次生灾害,如地震滑坡、崩塌、泥石流等。多次强震后发现在致灾过程中呈现地震-地震滑坡-泥石流灾害链模式,如四川炉霍地震、台湾集集地震、四川汶川地震等。这种灾害模式具有强大的破坏力和长久的灾害危险性,对灾区人民的生产生活造成了严重威胁。科学地认识评估地震-滑坡-泥石流灾害链具有重要的意义和价值。基于此,本文对中国数次强震后的泥石流、滑坡分布数据进行了收集和分析,对其分布特征和规律进行了总结。以地震-滑坡-泥石流灾害链为论文思路,首先讨论了震后地震滑坡、崩塌与泥石流物源的关系,结合震后新增的泥石流物源主要来自地震造成的滑坡、崩塌堆积物的客观事实,后续对地震造成的滑坡、崩塌松散物质体积的估算,泥石流物源体积的估算,实现了地震对泥石流物源量影响的过程分析。本文主要取得以下成果:1、根据地震后强震区的泥石流及其物源、滑坡的发育和分布资料进行了总结分析,对地震滑坡崩塌分布与相关因子的关系进行了探讨。表明强震区震后泥石流物源量的主要来自于地震滑坡、崩塌堆积物。强震区泥石流、滑坡都受控于地震烈度及发震断层。其中地震滑坡、崩塌还与岩性及地形关系密切,泥石流物源也与当地的地形条件、岩性条件等关系密切。2、通过对世界范围的地震滑坡的整理,结合地震参数、地形起伏度进行了耦合分析。结果表明,整体上随着烈度和震级的增加,滑坡数量和密度增加,但地震滑坡数量差异较大,量级差异最大可达1到2个量级。在地形起伏度为150m左右的情况下,地震滑坡密度最大。3、通过实际调查和解译的数据,以汶川地震研究区的滑坡、崩塌松散物质数据,建立了汶川地区基于面积和体积关系滑坡崩堆积物经验估算公式。并对估算公式进行改进,应用改进后的公式估算鲁甸灾区地震滑坡、崩塌总方量约为41459444m3。同时也对估算过程中最大的误差因素进行了总结分析,认为区域性的误差主要来自对大型滑坡、崩塌灾害点的准确估算。4、通过对泥石流物源量的影响因素分析总结,表明其影响因子主要有流域因子,地形环境因子,以及沟道的岩性及距离发震断层的距离。除此之外,还尝试利用多因素对泥石流物源量进行预测估算,计算结果表明多因素拟合关系误差较大,并不适用。提出参考滑坡、崩塌的堆积物厚度经验公式和面积-体积经验公式对泥石流物源量进行估算。结果表明面积-体积法和厚度法能够较好的预测泥石流物源量,其中面积-体积法的误差绝对值均值在25%。基于此,证实可以利用泥石流流域内的滑坡崩塌堆积物与泥石流物源量的关系来进行预测总量。
Other AbstractThe shallow strong earthquakes often trigger a large number of earthquake secondary mountain disasters in the mountainous areas, such as earthquake landslides, collapse and so on. We find the disasters have been earthquake - earthquake landslides - debris flow disaster chain model at several earthquake events, such as Sichuan Luhuo earthquake, Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, Sichuan Wenchuan earthquake. The disaster chain model has a strong destructive power and long-term disaster risk. It is a serious threat to the people in the disaster area. It is of great significance and value to scientifically understand and evaluate the model. Based on the study, this paper has collected and analyzed the debris flow and landslide distribution data after several earthquake events in China, and has extracted the distribution characteristics. This paper structure is based on the earthquake - earthquake landslides - debris flow disaster chain model. Firstly, we discuss the relationship between seismic landslides,collapse and the debris flow provenance. The results show that post-earthquake debris flow provenance mainly come from the landslides and collapse deposit. Then we estimate the seismic landslides and debris provenance. Finally,we accomplish the impact of the earthquake on the debris flow provenance. The main achievements of this paper are as follows:1)According to the post-earthquake data in the strong earthquake area, the distribution characteristics of the debris flows and landslides are analyzed. The results show that the increase of the amount of debris flow provenance in the strong earthquake area is mainly due to the earthquake landslide and collapse deposit. We also discuss the relation between landslides distribution with its impact factors. The debris flows and landslide are controlled by the earthquake intensity and seismogenic fault. Moreover,seismic landslides,collapse and debris provenance have close relations with the rock categories and topographical.2)Through the post-earthquake landslides cases in the world,the coupling analysis is carried out by combining the seismic parameters and the relief ampltude. The results show that the number and density of landslides increase with the increase of intensity and magnitude, and the quantity of seismic landslide vary greatly, the magnitude difference is up to 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. In the case of terrain relief of about 150m, the seismic landslides have maximum density.3)Based on field investigation and interpretation, we establish the empirical formula between landslides area and volume through the loose material data of Wenchuan earthquake landslides and collapse . We modify the Wenchuan formula,and use it to estimate the total volume of Ludian earthquake landslides and collapse. The estimated volume is 41459444 m3. And the error sources in the estimation are explained. The error of the total volume mainly is due to the estimation accuracy of the large landslides disaster .4)The influence factors of the debris flow source are summarized, and the influencing factors are mainly composed of watershed factor, geomorphic environmental factors, and the lithology of the channel and the distance from the fault. In addition, we also try to use multiple factors to predict the amount of debris flow source, the results show that multi-factor fitting relationship is not effective. The results show that the area - volume formula method can predict the increment quantity of debris flow provenance, and the mean absolute value of the error is 25%. The results show that the area-volume method can predict the debris flow increment quantity. Finally, it certify that we can use the relations landslides and collapse deposits with the total debris flow provenance to predict the debris flow provenance. 
Pages78
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24567
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈成. 强震对泥石流物源量的影响研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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