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保水剂结合绿肥对季节性干旱区新垦植烟土壤的改良效应研究
Alternative TitleThe Study of Soil Improvement of Water-retaining Agent and Green Manure on Newly Cultivated Flue-cured Tabacco Soil in Seasonal Drought Area
青会
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张丹
2017
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline土壤学
Keyword保水剂 绿肥 植烟土壤
Abstract在我国部分农村,种植烤烟是一种改变当地产业结构、促进农户增收的重要支柱产业。攀枝花是四川第二大的烟区,种烟面积11万亩,当地农户通过种植烤烟脱贫。攀枝花植烟地区属季节性干旱区,水、肥成为制约其土壤培肥的重要因素,影响了烟叶的产量和质量。本研究结合不同剂量的Guilspare保水剂(0、2、4和6 L/m2土壤)和绿肥(紫云英、黑麦草和豌豆)施用,在植烟闲季设计保水剂加绿肥留肥试验,培肥当地新垦植烟土壤。通过对比在种植不同绿肥土壤中施用不同剂量保水剂的保水效果及绿肥植株的生长和土壤含水量,确定保水剂的保水能力(Water Conservation, WC);对比不同保水剂加绿肥组合处理下土壤营养元素的差异和综合土壤肥力,分析保水剂结合绿肥使用对土壤的培肥效果(Fertility Betterment, FB);对比烤烟的农艺性状、经济性状和化学成分,找出适合当地烤烟生长的最佳保水剂绿肥组合。主要研究结果如下:(1)4 L/m2保水剂结合黑麦草保水效果最佳保水剂Guilspare在该研究区域显示出一定的保水性。施加保水剂后前60 d,保水效果较好。施加保水剂10 d后,2、4、6 L/m2处理的土壤含水量分别比对照高22.49 %、28.16 %、16.64 %。土壤保水效果与用量呈抛物线关系,WC(4 L/m2)> WC(6 L/m2)> WC(2 L/m2)> WC(0 L/m2)。但在长期缺水条件下,保水剂无水可保,各土壤含水量趋于一致。三种绿肥配合保水剂施用,保水效果WC(黑麦草)>WC(豌豆)>WC(紫云英)。同时,在干旱季节,黑麦草与豌豆能正常萌发、生长,而紫云英萌发生长受阻。(2)保水剂结合绿肥处理对土壤具有一定的培肥效果保水剂4 L/m2+豌豆处理明显提高土壤OM、N含量,OM为8.55 g/kg,比处理效果最差的6 L/m2+紫云英增加117.56%;TN含量为0.81 g/kg,比处理效果最差的6 L/m2+豌豆增加26.56%。在中量营养元素方面,绿肥改良土壤,整体上培肥效果为FB(紫云英)>FB(豌豆)>FB(黑麦草)。未施加保水剂时,紫云英、豌豆和黑麦草土壤中的TCa含量分别为8.46、8.42和4.30 g/kg,TMg含量分别为12.82、8.42和7.60 g/kg,AS分别为127.74、112.51和64.13 mg/kg。但对植烟土壤而言,黑麦草培肥土壤是AS含量为最佳。对各小区植烟土壤的整体营养元素进行评价,土壤综合肥力指数(IFI)在0.46~0.54之间,以0 L/m2+豌豆处理的IFI最高(0.54)。根据各营养元素的隶属度值可知,导致改区域IFI偏低的主要原因是该地区大量营养元素偏低,仍需继续培肥。(3)保水剂结合绿肥处理对烤烟综合质量的改良效果在烤烟农艺性状和经济性状方面,4 L/m2+黑麦草处理表现出一定的正效果。4L/m2+黑麦草处理的烤烟在株高、节距、茎围和叶面积指数均为最大值,分别为126.8 cm、6.21 cm、10.67 cm和4.58,相比均值分别增加10.53%、13.91%、10.00%和31.67%。其产量与产值分别为193.51 kg/亩和3750.36 元/亩,分别比均值增加9.50%和13.17%。 在烤烟化学品质及协调性方面,该研究区烤烟的总糖、还原糖、氯含量偏高,最高分别为44.14%、36.37%和2.87%。而烟碱和钾含量偏低,最低值分别为1.12%和1.01%。在种植黑麦草的土壤中,随着保水剂增加,烤烟总糖含量下降,上中部烟叶分别从未施加保水剂时的44.14%和42.08%减少至35.89%和33.68%。上中部烟叶含钾量也随着保水剂的施加而上升,分别从1.34%和1.48%上升至1.62%和1.59%,调整了烤烟内在化学品质的协调性。对烤烟化学品质进行综合评价,以4 L/m2+黑麦草处理的烤烟综合质量最好。综上,4 L/m2+黑麦草处理在保水培肥土壤和提升烤烟经济价值方面效果最好。
Other AbstractAt some rural areas in China, fue-cured tobacco has becomes the economic crops which changes the industrial structure, and increases farmers 'income. Panzhihua is the second big tobacco growing area, and there is 110,000 mu tobacco field. The farmers here shake off poverty by growing tobacco. Panzhihua is a seasonal drought area. water and fertility are the main factor that restrict the fertility betterment.In this study, the fertility of newly cultivated flue-cured tobacco soil is improved by water retaining agent and green manure in dull season. By comparing the water-holding effects and plant growth in different dose and plant types, analysis the water-holding capacity of water retaining agent. By comparing the nutrients and integrated soil fertility, analysis the fertilizing effect of water retaining agent and green manure. By comparing the agronomic characters, economic character and chemical composition, finding out the best fertilizing measure in the local soil. The main results of this study are as follows:(1) 4 L/m2 water retaining agent is the best for water conservation. The water retaining agent Guilspare shows a certain degree of water retention in the district. In the early stage of application of Guilspare, along with the increase of dose, the effect of soil water retention is in a parabolic relationship with the amount. the effects is WC(4 L/m2)> WC(6 L/m2)> WC(2 L/m2)> WC(0 L/m2). However, under the condition of long-term water shortage, the water retaining agent have no water to maintain without, the soil content of each treatment gradually tends to be consistent. Among the three crops, the water retention effects is WC(ryegrass) > WC(pea) > WC( vetch).(2) Water retaining agent and green manure has some effect on fertility bettermentAmong them, 4 L/m2+ pea treatment has a better effects on organic matter and nitrogen nutrition., whose organic matter and total nitrogen is 8.55 g/kg and 0.81 g/kg respectively.In the medium nutrient elements, the fertility betterment is FB(vetch) > FB(pea) >FB(ryegrass). Under the situation without water retaining agent, in the soil with vetch, ryegrass and pea, the total Ca are 8.46、8.42、4.30 g/kg, the total Mg are 12.82、8.42、7.60 g/kg,the available S are 127.74、112.51、64.13 mg/kg. But for tobacco, the available S is too high, so ryegrass is better for fertilizer.Evaluate the whole nutrient elements of each treatment, and the integrated soil fertility index (IFI) ranges from 0.46 to 0.54(0 L/m2+pea), which is mainly due to the low macronutrient. The soil still needs fertility betterment.(3) Water retaining agent and green manure increase the integrated quality of flue tobaccoIn the aspects of agronomic and economic characters, compared with other treatment, 4 L/m2 + ryegrass shows a certain superiority. It’s height, pitch, girth, weight per leaf and leaf area index are 126.8 cm, 6.21cm, 10.67 cm and 4.58 respectively, and compared with average value, it raised by 10.53%, 13.91%,10.00% and 31.67% respectively. It’s yield and output value are 193.51 kg/mu and 3750.36 yuan/mu, and increased 9.50% and 13.17% respectively.In the aspect of chemical quality and coordination, the flue-cured tobacco in this study area is in a situation with high total sugar, reducing sugar , chlorine and low nicotine, potassium. The highest total sugar, reducing sugar , chlorine are 44.14%, 36.37% and 2.87% respectively, the lowest nicotine, potassium are 1.12% and 1.01%. In the ryegrass planting soil, with water retaining agent increasing, the total sugar of the upper and middle tobacco decreased from 44.14% and 42.08% to 35.89% and 33.68, respectively. At the same soil, with water retaining agent increasing, the potassium of the upper and middle tobacco increased from 1.34% and 1.48% to 1.62% and 1.59%, respectively. The chemical quality of flue-cured tobacco were adjusted. According to the comprehensive evaluation of chemical quality of flue-cured tobacco, the tobacco of 4 L/m2 + ryegrass treat is the best.Above all, the treat of 4 L/m2 + ryegrass has a better effect on water conservation, fertility betterment, ecomomic of flue-cured tobacco.
Pages70
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24573
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
青会. 保水剂结合绿肥对季节性干旱区新垦植烟土壤的改良效应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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