IMHE OpenIR  > 山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
高寒冻融区土石混合介质特征以及对土壤呼吸的影响
Alternative TitleCharacteristics of soil-stony mixture and its effects on soil respiration in cold and frozen thawing area
吕富成
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor王小丹
2017
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline自然地理
Keyword土石混合介质 砾石体积含量 土壤呼吸 粒径
Abstract受地壳抬升挤压、冻融交替、风力侵蚀和冰川退缩等内外力共同作用的影响,青藏高原土壤不仅含有大量的砾石,这种土壤和砾石组成的土石混合介质在形成机制、物质组成和能量流动都十分独特。从形成机制上看,受第四纪气候变化,地壳隆升,冰川消融、山体侵蚀和剥蚀增强等共同作用,青藏高原周边地层中形成了巨厚的砾石层;从物质组成上看,高寒冻融区土壤中砾石的来源包括地质作用成土母质形成的风化物,冰川作用留下的冰碛物,以及成土母质进一步受到风蚀作用和流水作用裸露于地表的砾石等;土石混合介质在温湿度变化,地气能量交换、太阳辐射的传输,都不同于一般的均质土壤。在干旱半干旱地区,砾石含量对土壤性质、植物生长均有重要的影响,然而,有关砾石特征与土壤、生物关系的研究鲜有报道。此外,高寒草原地表广泛的砾石也影响土壤碳库的重要环境因子之一,砾石通过改变土壤与植物、大气交界面的水热交换和传输过程,间接影响土壤呼吸;砾石物理阻滞作用直接改变CO2传输方式、路径、时间特征,继而影响土壤呼吸的过程;尤其是在高寒地区,砾石对CO2的压力作用,可能改变土壤溶液中CO2含量、碳酸盐转化及其溶解度和淋溶强度。因此,研究砾石特征对土壤呼吸的影响机制势在必行。鉴于高寒冻融区土石混合介质中砾石分布及其对CO2传输过程影响的不确定性,本课题拟在青藏高原高寒冻融区域,依托申扎高寒草原生态站,以代表性高寒草原土壤分布区为重点,通过样带调查、遥感等技术手段,弄清高寒冻融区土石混合介质中砾石的主要特征;分析高寒冻融区砾石分布与土壤性质、生物量的关系;探究砾石特性对土壤呼吸的影响。不仅可以为高寒地区植被保护和生态屏障建设积累重要的基础资料,也是准确估算青藏高原有机碳库及其环境效应的提供重要基础,而且对陆地生态系统碳循环模拟有重要意义。总结起来,本研究主要取得了一下成果:1.申扎地区土石混合介质砾石体积含量空间差异性较大。0-10cm的砾石体积含量较低(0.9%~36.5%),10-20cm砾石体积含量次之(1.8%~68%);20-30cm砾石体积含量最高(3%~86%)。总的来看,砾石体积含量随着土壤深度的增加而增加。从不同粒径的砾石体积含量看,不同土层的粒径配比是相同的,粒径的分选性差。2.高寒冻融区土石混合介质砾石体积含量与地上生物量、地下生物量均存在显著的线性负相关关系。即随着砾石体积含量的增加,高寒冻融区植物地上和地下的生物量逐渐较少。另外发现,申扎地区0-10cm的土壤砾石体积含量与土石混合介质总容重没有相关关系,该地区10-20cm、20-30cm的砾石体积含量与土石混合介质总容重呈显著的线性正相关关系,随着土壤深度的加深,砾石体积含量对土壤容重的影响愈加明显。部分粒径砾石体积含量与生物量有显著相关关系。0-10cm土层5-10mm粒径体积含量与同一土层的地下生物量显著线性负相关关系。10-20cm土层5-10mm、10-20mm粒径体积含量与对应土层的地下生物量显著线性负相关关系,20-30cm土层2-5mm粒径体积含量与对应土层的地下生物量呈显著线性负相关关系。3.通过野外定位实验发现,高寒冻融区地表粒径覆盖对土壤温度、湿度和土壤呼吸有显著影响。(1)不同粒径覆盖处理的评价土壤温度,中粒>细粒>CK>粗粒,5cm的土壤温度在16点达到最大,10cm和15cm的土壤温度在18点达到最大。其中粗粒的土壤温度在16点和18点明显低于其他处理;全天连续观测发现,10cm的土壤温度上升过程中,不同粒径覆盖处理之间土壤温度差异不大,且最高温度明显大于大气温度,但在温度下降过程中,土壤温度从大到小依次为中粒>细粒>CK>粗粒>大气温度。(2)不同粒径覆盖处理的土壤湿度存在差异,对白天10cm土壤湿度观测发现,粗粒>中粒>CK>细粒,且随着时间的推移土壤湿度缓慢下降。通过对10cm土壤湿度的连续观测发现,不同粒径覆盖下10cm的土壤湿度从大到小其次为,粗粒>中粒>CK>细粒。另外,在降水条件下,土壤湿度从大到小为:粗粒>细粒>中粒>CK。(3)不同粒径覆盖处理的土壤呼吸速率昼变化和月变化一致,依次为:CK>粗粒>中粒>细粒,且细粒土壤呼吸速率显著低于CK。(4)高寒冻融区土石混合介质地表不同粒径覆盖处理的土壤呼吸速率与土壤温度、土壤湿度呈显著的线性正相关。
Other AbstractThe Qinghai Tibet Plateau uplift by cold extrusion, influence of weathering and glacial retreat, Tibetan Plateau not only contains large amounts of gravel soil, the soil and stone mixture composed of gravel in the formation mechanism, material composition and energy flow are very unique. From the formation mechanism, the Qinghai Tibet Plateau surrounding the distribution of thick conglomerate may be the Quaternary climate change, glacial and interglacial climate alternately, mountain erosion and erosion products reinforced; from the material composition, cold freezing and thawing gravel soil sources include geological weathering soil forming into the moraine glaciers left behind, and the soil wind erosion and water effect is further exposed to the surface of the gravel; soil stone mixture changes in temperature and humidity, gas exchange, energy transmission of solar radiation, are different from the general homogeneous soil. In arid and semi-arid regions, gravel content has an important effect on soil properties and plant growth. However, there are few reports about the relationship between gravel characteristics and soil and biological. In addition, alpine grassland surface wide gravel also affect one of the important environmental factors of soil carbon pool, water heat exchange and transmission of gravel by changing the soil and plant, air interface, indirect effects on soil respiration; physical block gravel directly change the CO2 transmission mode, path, characteristics, process and effect of soil respiration; especially in the alpine region, pressure of gravel CO2, may change in soil solution and carbonate content of CO2 transformation and its solubility and leaching intensity. Therefore, it is imperative to study the mechanism of the effect of gravel on soil respiration.In view of the distribution of Alpine frozen gravel area stone mixture and its influence on the transmission process of CO2 uncertainty, this topic in the alpine region of freezing and thawing, relying on the Xainza alpine grassland ecological station, with typical alpine grassland soil distribution area as the focus, through the sample survey, remote sensing technology, understand the main Alpine frozen the characteristics of soil stone mixture ; analysis of cold freezing and thawing of biomass and soil properties, the distribution area of gravel; effect of gravel on soil respiration characteristics. Not only can accumulate important basic data for the construction of vegetation protection and ecological barrier in alpine region, is to accurately estimate the Qinghai Tibet Plateau organic carbon pool and its environmental effects provide important basis, but also on the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystem simulation has important significance. To sum up, this study has made some achievements:1 there is a large spatial difference of gravel volume content in the Xainza area. The gravel volume content of 0-10cm soil depth was lower (0.9%~36.5%), and the gravel volume content of 10-20cm gravel was 3%~86% (1.8%~68%); the highest volume of 20-30cm gravel (3). On the whole, the gravel volume increases with the increase of soil depth. According to the gravel volume content of different particle size, the particle size ratio of different soil layers is the same, and the particle size is poor.2 there was a significant linear negative correlation between gravel volume content and aboveground biomass, belowground biomass in soil rock mixture. With the increase of gravel volume content, the aboveground and underground biomass of plants decreased. In addition, 0-10cm gravel volume content and soil bulk density had no significant relationship between 10-20cm and 20-30cm, the content of gravel volume had a significant linear correlation with soil bulk density, with the increase of soil depth, effects of gravel volume content on soil bulk density is more obvious.3 there are significant effects of different particle size on soil temperature, moisture and soil respiration. (1) the average soil temperature, the grain size and the grain size of the coarse grain >CK>, the soil temperature of 5cm reached the maximum at the maximum of 16, and the soil temperature of 10cm and 15cm reached the maximum at the maximum of 18. The soil temperature of coarse grain in 16 and 18 was significantly lower than that of the other treatments; all day long continuous observations, the process of soil temperature rise of 10cm in different size coverage between the soil temperature difference, and the highest temperature is significantly greater than the atmospheric temperature, but the temperature drop in the process of soil temperature from large to small in turn for fine grained >CK> coarse grain > > atmospheric temperature. (2) there were significant differences in soil moisture content of different particle sizes, and the results showed that the soil moisture in the daytime was 10cm, and the grain size was >CK>. Based on the continuous observation of soil moisture in 10cm, it was found that the soil moisture content of 10cm under different particle size was from large to small, followed by coarse grain, medium grain >CK>. In addition, under the condition of precipitation, the soil moisture is from large to small: coarse grain, fine grain, medium grain >CK. (3) the diurnal variation and monthly variation of soil respiration rate in different particle size coverage treatments were as follows: CK> coarse grain, medium grain and fine grain, and fine soil respiration rate was significantly lower than CK. (4) there was a significant linear correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperature and soil moisture.
Pages49
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24576
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吕富成. 高寒冻融区土石混合介质特征以及对土壤呼吸的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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