IMHE OpenIR  > 山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
结构面动力响应特征及岩质边坡破坏规律
Alternative TitleWave Dynamic Characteristic of Structure Plane and Failure Rules of Rock Slope
刘传正
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor崔鹏 ; 张建经
2017
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline岩土工程
Keyword岩质边坡 地震响应 岩体结构面 应力波
Abstract地震是诱发大型岩质崩塌、滑坡主要因素之一,预测与防治地震边坡灾害的前提之一是正确的认识地震崩塌(滑坡)失稳机理与至灾过程。本研究通过野外考察和灾史数据,阐述了地震岩质边坡的失稳特征与机理,分析了岩体结构面对地震边坡的影响。然后,从波动理论出发,通过建立力学模型,分析了应力波在岩石粗糙节理和软弱夹层中的传播规律,应力波的能量演化与转化。通过大型振动台实验与离散元数值模拟,分析含有软弱夹层和节理的顺层岩质边坡的地震响应与破坏在时空中演化规律。该项研究对于提升地震岩质边坡失稳机理认识、地震岩质边坡分析技术与方法具有重要的意义和价值。主要结论如下:(1)对最近几次大型地震所引发的岩质崩塌、滑坡的灾史资料和现场勘察分析,地震作用下下岩体中的惯性力为边坡失稳的内动力,破坏力主要为拉应力和剪应力。岩体结构面影响应力波传播、降低边坡岩体形变刚度和强度,且往往为边坡失稳破坏面的引导面。据此给出地震岩质边坡岩体结构面相对规模分类。(2) 岩石粗糙节理的复杂形态极大的影响了节理的形变刚度系数,继而对应力波的传播产生了很大的影响,应力波能量的损耗与节理的刚度系数、粘滞性系数等具有很大关系。与以往研究的不同之处是,粗糙节理所导致的应力-变形非共线性质,导致P-wave、SV-wave与SH-wave之间能够相互转化。(3) 应力波在夹层传播过程中,应力波在夹层内剩余能量系数随折反射次数的增加而呈指数型衰减;当应力波持续入射时,夹层内部能量系数在累积到第4次折反射后基本达到顶峰;当应力波入射边坡中软弱夹层时,如果按照传统方法直接用夹层内的下滑剪应力与法应力评价边坡的稳定性时,将会导致边坡的安全系数高估。(4) 引入发展了全矢谱分析技术,使之能够应用于边坡的地震响应分析中。研究发现:作为数据融合技术的一种,全矢谱中的振矢谱能够更准确全面反映出边坡振动的强度大小性质;而振矢角谱则能够反映边坡地震响应的方向特性,并且能够时频域上反应出更多动力变化特征与现象。(5) 通过振动台实验与离散元数值模拟分析发现:对于含软弱夹层顺层岩质边坡而言,岩体的破坏是从坡顶开始,在后缘沿节理产生拉伸破坏。随着地震荷载持续作用,破坏面沿着结构面逐渐往更深、更广的区域发展,并沿层面或软弱夹层发生剪切破坏。边坡的失稳从坡肩开始的,失稳形式主要为岩石块体的滚落为主,没有形成贯通的滑移面。
Other AbstractEarthquake is one of the main factors that lead to large rock collapse or landslide. Fully understand the mechanism and instability process of earthquake collapse (landslide) is the premise of predicting and engineering controlling earthquake slopes. Based on the analysis of field investigation and history disaster data, the paper analyzed the instability characteristics and mechanism of seismic rock slope and the influence of rock structure on seismic slope instability. Then, based on the wave theory, the propagation regular of stress wave in rock rough joint and weak intercalation are analyzed by theoretical methods, and the energy evolution and transformation of stress wave are analyzed in detail. Finally, the evolution of seismic response and damage in the bedding rock slope with weak intercalations and joints is analyzed by large-scale shaking table experiment and discrete element numerical simulation. This study is of great significance and value in understanding the mechanism of seismic rock slope instability and the analysis technology and method of the seismic rock slope. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Based on the analysis of the geological survey and the historical data of the rocky landslide caused by the recent large-scale earthquakes, it is concluded that the inertial force in the rock mass is the internal force of the slope instability under earthquake action. The destructive force is the tensile stress and the shear stress, slope instability often caused by the combined effect of the two. The structure plane of the rock mass mainly affects the propagation of the stress wave in the rock mass, reducing the deformation stiffness and strength of the main structure of the slope, and the guiding surface of the failure surface. According to the geological characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the structural plane, the structural plane of seismic rock slope has been classified. (2) The Complex morphological and mechanical contact behavior of the rough joint of the rock greatly influences the deformation stiffness of the joint and then has a great influence on the propagation of the stress wave. The dissipation of the stress wave energy changes with the stiffness coefficient and the viscosity coefficient of the joint. Compare to the previous study, the non-collinear properties caused by rough joints cause the P-wave, SV-wave and SH-wave to be transformed from each other. (3) During the process of wave’s propagation in the intercalation, the residual energy coefficient in the intercalation is exponentially decaying with the increase of the number of catadioptric. When the stress wave is continuously incident, the internal energy coefficient of the intercalation reaches the peak after accumulating to the fourth catadioptric. When the stress wave is incident on the weak intercalation in the slope, the safety factor of the slope will be overrated if the stability of the slope is evaluated by the slip stress and normal stress in the intercalation. (4) Introduced and developed the full spectrum analysis technology, so that it can be applied to the slope of the seismic response analysis. According to the result, as a kind of data fusion technique, the full vector spectrum vibration signal can reflect the intensity properties of the slope vibration more accurately, and the vibration angle spectrum can reflect the direction characteristic of the slope seismic response. The full vector spectrum technology can be given more vibration information on the frequency - time domain. (5) Through the shaking table experiment and the discrete element numerical simulation analysis, it is found that the failure of the rock mass is from the top of the slope and the tensile failure at the trailing edge of the rock slope. With the continuous action of the earthquake load, the failure surface development along the structural surface gradually to the deeper, wider region, and shear damages have occurred along the bedding plane or weak intercalation. The collapse of the slope starts from the crest, and failure mode of the slope is mainly the rolling and falling off the rock block, and the sliding surface can not formed in the slope.
Pages172
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24586
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘传正. 结构面动力响应特征及岩质边坡破坏规律[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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