IMHE OpenIR  > 山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
山洪泥石流精细化分级监测预警方法
Alternative TitleMeticulous-rating monitoring and early-warning method for flash flood and debris flow
严炎
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor崔鹏
2017
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline岩土工程
Keyword山洪泥石流 精细化过程监测 分级预警
Abstract监测预警是小流域山洪、泥石流及其灾害链预防与减灾的最为有效的技术手段之一。由于对于强震区成灾环境变化条件下灾害活动特征与演化趋势缺乏清晰准确的认识,对震区山洪、泥石流灾害链的形成条件、形成机理、演进过程缺少系统性的研究与认知,并且现有的监测预警方法确定临界阈值存在很大困难,而临界阈值又具有一定的不可靠性,目前的监测预警模型与系统难以进行震区灾害链的精确预警。本论文在进行震区水-土耦合作用下的山洪、泥石流形成、演进的系统研究基础上,基于灾种转化的临界条件,提出适宜震区灾害链精确预警的模式-山洪泥石流精细化分级监测预警模式。在此理论框架下,取得了一系列关键技术突破。在理论框架的指导下,解决关键技术问题,实现技术集成,构建了龙溪河精细化分级监测预警系统,形成系统性的灾害链监测预警技术体系,并通过龙溪河案例实际应用,验证了该方法的可行性和合理性。取得如下主要成果:1.在对震区山洪、泥石流灾害链的形成条件、形成机理、演进过程系统性的研究与认知基础上,基于灾种转化的临界条件,提出适宜震区灾害链的精细化分级预警理论框架:过程精细化监测-分级预警-个性化预警信息发布。2.以信号处理为手段,通过大尺度堰塞湖溃决形成泥石流实验和东川泥石流原型观测,进行泥石流形成过程的信号分析研究,得到震动信号时频特征和各频率成分的信号源,为泥石流形成提供一种新的探测手段。3.运用计算机视觉技术,提出了一种泥石流表面流速场测算的新方法Trace projection transformation。将稠密光流法和透视投影变换方法结合,实现从迎流体运动方向上任意角度捕捉泥石流体的运动影像,进行图像分析与表面流速场测量,实现了泥石流演进过程中流速场的计算。4.提出一种基于动力学参数进行监测的新方法,能够精确获取流体演进过程的容重变化,从而判识流体的种类和性质,结合流深和流速观测数据进一步判识流体对下游的危害规模,实施精确预警,解决泥石流演进过程中动力学参数获取的关键技术问题。5.在精细化分级监测预警理论框架的指导下,解决关键技术突破,以龙溪河流域为示范区,通过技术集成构建了精细化分级的监测预警系统。通过2016年7月5日龙溪河的实测数据进行了实证研究,研究结果与调查资料和视频监控影像较为一致,验证了精细化分级监测预警方法的可行性和合理性。
Other AbstractMonitoring and early warning is one of the most effective technical means to prevent and reduce the disaster of flash flood, debris flow and disastrous chain. As for the trend and evolution characteristics of environmental disaster disaster conditions in earthquake area under the change of lack of clear understanding and accurate, for flood, debris flow formation and evolution mechanism, the lack of systematic research and cognition, and monitoring and early warning of existing methods of determining the critical threshold is very difficult, but also has the reliability threshold not certain, precise early warning monitoring and early warning system model and the current difficult earthquake disaster chain. On the basis of the system in this thesis, the earthquake water soil coupling for flash floods, debris flow formation and evolution of the disaster, critical conditions based on the transformation of the earthquake disaster chain, put forward the suitable accurate warning mode - fine classification of debris flow monitoring and early warning model. Under this theoretical framework, a series of key technological breakthroughs have been obtained. In the framework, solve the key technical problems, realize the integration of technology, constructs the classification monitoring and early warning system of Longxi River fine, systematic disaster chain monitoring and early warning system, and through the practical application of longxi river case, verify the feasibility and rationality of the method. The following main results are obtained:1. In the flood, debris flow disaster chain formation, formation mechanism, evolution process of systematic research and cognition on the basis of disaster based on the transformation of the critical condition, put forward suitable fine grading warning theory frame of earthquake disaster chain: the process of fine monitoring - classification warning - personalized release.2. By means of signal processing, the formation of debris flow experiment and prototype observation of debris flow in Dongchuan through large scale dam break analysis of debris flow formation, signal process, signal source frequency characteristics and frequency components of the vibration signal, and provides a new detection method for debris flow.3. A new method, trace projection and transformation, is proposed to measure the velocity field of debris flow by computer vision technology. The dense optical flow method and projection transformation method with motion capture images of the debris flow from any angle on the direction of fluid motion, image analysis and surface velocity field measurement, and the calculation of debris flow evolution process of flow speed field.4. This paper proposes a new method for monitoring based on the kinetic parameters of density change can accurately obtain the fluid evolution process, so as to identify the type and nature of the fluid, and flow depth and velocity data further identifying hazard scale fluid on the downstream, the implementation of accurate early warning, the key technology to solve the problem of obtaining the kinetic parameters of debris flow in the course of evolution.5. In the fine classification of monitoring and early warning framework, solve key technology breakthrough in Longxi River Basin as a demonstration area, through technology integration construction monitoring and early warning system for adequate classification. According to the measured data of July 5, 2016 Longxi River made an empirical study on the research results, and more survey data and video monitoring image consistent, verify the feasibility of the fine classification method of monitoring and early warning and rationality.
Pages150
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24597
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
严炎. 山洪泥石流精细化分级监测预警方法[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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