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尼泊尔中部山区聚落格局变化及驱动力分析
Alternative TitleSettlement Pattern Changes and Driving Forces for Central Mountainous Areas of Nepal
苏艺
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor邓伟
2017
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline人文地理学
Keyword山区 尼泊尔 聚落格局 驱动力 农户生计
Abstract山区是人地关系矛盾最为突出的区域之一,山区发展也是全球经济发展中的重要议题和关注的热点问题。山区聚落格局的形成与演变是人类长期与自然和谐共处的结果,是人地关系最重要的表现方面,特别是山地农业国家表现的更为突出一些。尼泊尔是一个典型的山地农业国家,近20多年来,其经济社会发展具有明显的变化,期间包括国家体制的变化。伴随这些变化,农村地域系统各要素的配置都发生了很大改变,为研究山区人地关系变化提供了的典型样地。尼泊尔山区聚落格局变化及驱动力的研究对揭示山地农业国家人地关系作用机制具有科学价值,对认知喜马拉雅地区南坡土地利用变化与山区聚落发展关系以及喜马拉雅山南北坡聚落特征、形成机制的对比研究具有重要意义。本文以尼泊尔中部山区聚落作为研究对象,在人地关系理论、人居环境理论、行为地理学等相关理论指导下,从宏观和微观两个尺度探究聚落格局变化及其驱动力。在宏观尺度上依托GIS平台,识别山区聚落格局特征,构建山区聚落格局演变分析框架,在分析过程中遵循空间研究的基本范式,即“格局-过程-机理”的研究思路,从现状特征描述-空间特征动态变化-变化模式识别-驱动力探究四个方面渐进展开。在微观尺度上,采用“PRA+3S”相结合的方法,从农户行为的视角进一步探究农户行为对聚落格局特征的影响及响应。本文主要得到以下研究结论:(1)尼泊尔中部山区聚落的空间分布表现出明显的地域分异特征,聚落分布形成了5个主要的高密度核心区,其中三个核心区以加德满都为中心组成了一个高密度聚落分布带,成为研究区聚落最集中分布的区域,北部高山区是聚落分布的“冷点”地带。聚落分布具有明显的海拔和坡度指向性,聚落的分布指数曲线表明海拔500~1000m,坡度5~10°出现聚落的频率最大。(2)1990年~2014年的24年间,Melamchi流域聚落空间分布特征、聚落人口、聚落土地利用方式及聚落功能等方面均发生了明显变化。①空间分布特征:聚落斑块数量和密度均有所增大,且呈现“多核”分布趋势,中南部河谷地区形成了新的高密度分布带。聚落规模在低山和中山区扩张显著,且呈现明显两极化趋势。聚落空间分布的重心向南偏移,聚落分布的区域更加集中,呈现向低海拔地区集聚分布的趋势。聚落受人为活动干扰增加,斑块形状越趋复杂,边缘效应增强,聚落发展的随意性增加。②土地利用特征:林地是研究区最主要的土地利用类型,也是面积减少最为明显的类型。冰川-永久积雪和河流的面积有所减少,耕地、草地、居住用地、河滩、裸地的面积有所增加。土地利用类型的转换主要是林地向耕地、林地向居住用地以及冰川-永久积雪向裸地的单向转变。③功能变化:聚落的生活、生产、服务功能都产生了适宜性转变,且聚落功能在空间上也表现出了明显的垂直分异特征,河谷区逐渐发展成为了集农业、商贸、餐饮、住宿、医疗、教育、服务等为一体的多功能聚落。低山区非农生产功能不断增强;中山区以农业生产功能为主;高山区由于旅游资源丰富,主要发挥了旅游服务功能。(3)研究区聚落按照地貌特征可分为高山聚落、中山聚落、低山聚落和河谷聚落;按照聚落形态,可分为散点型、条带型和团簇型;按照聚落人口所属民族又可分为塔芒族聚落、婆罗门聚落和由牧族聚落。聚落变化模式分为分散式和集聚式两种模式,分散式以新生聚落斑块扩张为主,原生聚落斑块变化较小,集约用地程度低,分为扩散型和蔓延型两种。集聚式聚落团聚程度相对较高,聚落斑块新增、消亡动态变化明显,聚落斑块规模较大,集约用地程度较高,分为聚合型、迁移型和衰退型三种。聚落变化模式表现出明显的垂直地带性分异,与地貌类型高度耦合,也体现了不同地貌区人地关系主要矛盾差异。(4)地形地貌条件、全球气候变化、土地利用变化、社会制度变革、城镇化及劳动力流动、人口增长和家庭结构改变、基础设施建设、文化的融合、农户行为模式转变等是近20多年影响尼泊尔山区聚落格局变化的主要原因。不同聚落变化模式下的主导因素不同,各因素的影响力排序亦有差异。海拔、耕地与人口的变化是尼泊尔山区聚落格局变化最主要的驱动力量,环境-人口-土地之间的矛盾是该时段聚落格局变化的主要驱动力,道路表现出了一定的“吸附-集聚”效应。尼泊尔山区聚落的发展正处于从传统农业向农业和非农产业共同发展的阶段过渡,基础设施的驱动作用在未来将不断增大。(5)农户分化是尼泊尔山区农户生计特征的最主要表现,农为主型和非农为主型已成为尼泊尔山区的主要农户类型。非农生计活动也已成为农户生计策略的重要组成部分,非农收入在农户家庭中的地位越来越重要。非农生计活动将是未来驱动尼泊尔山区聚落格局变化的重要原因。 
Other AbstractThe mountainous area is the most prominent area in the aspect of the contradiction between man and land, and the development of mountain area is also an important issue and difficult problem in the global economic development. As the result of harmonious coexistence between human beings and nature for a long time, the settlement is the most direct expression of the relationship between man and nature. Nepal is a typical mountainous agricultural country, and in the past 20 years, it has undergone obvious economic and social changes, and various elements of the rural regional system configuration there have occurred great changes, so it is typical plot for the study of the relationship between man and land in the mountain. The study on settlement pattern change and driving mechanism in the mountains of Nepal has scientific value to reveal the mechanism of the relationship between man and land in the mountain agriculture country, and has important significance on cognition of land use change and mountainous settlement development in the southern slope of Himalaya area, and settlement characteristics in the southern and northern slope of Himalaya area and the comparative study on the formation mechanism.This paper takes central Nepal mountain settlement as the research object, and under the guide of the theory of people-land relation, the theory of living environment, behavior geography and other related theories, studies the settlement pattern changes and the driving mechanism from two modes of macro and micro scale. Based on the GIS platform on the macroscopic scale, recognize the pattern characteristics in mountain settlements, construct an analytical framework of the evolution of the settlement pattern in mountainous area, follow the basic paradigm of space research in the analytic process, which is research idea of "pattern-process-mechanism", and gradually describe from the four aspects:description of the current situation - dynamic changes in spatial characteristics - recognition of change pattern - discussion on driving mechanism. At the micro scale, the method of "PRA+3S" is used to further explore the influence and the response of farmers' behavior on the settlement pattern from the perspective of farmers' behavior. The main conclusions of this paper are as follows: (1) The spatial distribution of mountain settlements in central Nepal shows obvious regional differentiation characteristics, and the distribution of the settlements forms 5 main high-density core area, in which the three core areas takes Kathmandu as the center to form a high-density settlement distribution belt to become the area the most concentrated settlement in the study area, while Northern Mountain area is the "cold" belt in the aspect of settlement distribution. The settlement distribution has the obvious elevation and slope direction, and the distribution index curve of the settlement shows that the elevation of 500~1000m, 10°~35° slope is the most suitable terrain of settlements. (2) During the 24 years from 1990 ~2014, the spatial distribution characteristics, the settlement population, the settlement land use and settlement functions of settlements in Melamchi River Basin have changed significantly. ① Spatial distribution characteristics: the number and density of settlement patches show an increasing trend in total, showing a "multi nuclear" distribution trend, and a new high-density distribution zone forms in the central and southern valley. Settlement scope has occurred a significant expansion in the low mountain and Mid-mountain area, and shows the obvious polarization trend. The center of the spatial distribution of the settlement is offset to the south, and the area of the settlement distribution becomes more concentrated, showing the trend of gathering distribution towards low-altitude areas. The settlement is disturbed by human activities increasingly, and the patch shape becomes more complex, and the edge effect should be enhanced, and the arbitrary development of settlements is increased. ② Land use characteristics: forest land is the main land use type in the study area, and the most obvious type for the area reduction. The glacier-permanent snow and the river area has decreased, while the area of cultivated land, grassland, residential land, flood land, bare land has increased. The conversion of land use types is mainly the monotropy from woodland to arable land, and forest land to residential land, and glacier-permanent snow to bare land. ③The function change: settlement life, production, service function all have undergone suitable transformation, and the function of settlement in space also has showed an obvious vertical distribution, and the valley area gradually develops into the multi function settlement setting agriculture, commerce, catering, accommodation, medical, education and service as one. The function of non-farm production is increasing continuously in the low mountainous area, and the agricultural production function is the main function in Mid-mountain area; because of the rich tourism resources in high-mountain area, it mainly plays the function of tourism service. (3) According to the geomorphic features, the settlements can be divided into four types: high mountain settlements, middle mountain settlements, low mountain settlements and vally settlements. Acoording to the shape, the settlements can be divided into three types: scattered type, stripped type and clustered type. According to the national characteristics can be divided into Tamang settlement, Brahman settlement and Yolmo settlement. The settlement pattern is divided into two modes of diffusion type and cluster type, with the diffusion type mainly as the expansion of new settlement patches, while primary settlement patches have small changes. Intensive land use level is low, divided into two modes of dispersed type and spread type. The agglomeration degree of the settlement is relatively high, and the dynamic change in the increase and decrease of the settlement patch is obvious. The scale of settlement patches is relatively large, and the degree of intensive land use is high, while it can be divided into three types: aggregation type, migration type and decline type. The pattern of settlement change shows obvious vertical zonality, which is highly coupled with the landform type, and also reflects the differences of the main contradiction between man and land. (4) Landform conditions, global climate change, land use change, the change of social system, urbanization and labor mobility, population growth and family structure changes, infrastructure construction, cultural integration, farmer behavior pattern transformation are main reasons affecting settlement pattern changes in mountains of Nepal during nearly 20 years. The dominant factors under different settlement patterns are different, and the influence order of each factor is also different. The change of altitude, cultivated land and population is the most important driving force of the settlement pattern changes and the contradiction among environment-population-land is the main driving force of changes in settlement patterns during this period of time, while the road shows certain "adsorption agglomeration effect". The development of the mountain settlement in Nepal is in the transition from traditional agriculture to the common development of agriculture and non-agricultural industriesand the driving effect of infrastructure will continue to grow in the future. (5) The differentiation of farmers is the most important manifestation of the farmers' livelihoods in the mountainous areas of Nepal, and the agriculture-main type and non agriculture-main type have become the main types of farmers in the mountainous areas of Nepal. Non-farm livelihood activities have become an important part for the livelihood strategies of farmers, and the status of non-agricultural income becomes more and more important. Non-farm livelihood activities will become an important reason for the future changes in the settlement pattern in the mountainous area of Nepal. 
Pages180
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24601
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
苏艺. 尼泊尔中部山区聚落格局变化及驱动力分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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