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地质灾害高发区农户贫困脆弱性的测度研究——以三峡库区为例
Alternative TitlePoverty vulnerability measurement of farmer households in high incidence of geological hazards area——a case study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area
崔诗雨
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor刘邵权
2017
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword脆弱性 影响因素 计量模型 贫困 三峡库区
Abstract中国贫困人口规模大,且主要集中在山区农村,自改革开放以来中国山区的扶贫事业取得了举世瞩目的成就,但近年来返贫现象的出现却导致静态的扶贫策略效果下降,而重大自然灾害和疾病等外部风险冲击是导致返贫现象出现的主要原因。精准扶贫政策提出后,为精确识别困难农户并解决返贫问题,就必须动态看待贫困问题,因此贫困脆弱性的概念应运而生。论文在此背景下,以脆弱性的视角来研究山区农户的贫困问题,丰富了现有贫困理论,为山区农户生计策略的正确选择提供一定参考,且对精准扶贫的实现、农户生计的可持续发展具有重要的现实意义。论文在总结国内外有关贫困脆弱性研究进展的基础上,以外部风险冲击-内部风险管理框架设计调研问卷,经过实地调研获取第一手数据资料,运用计量模型法、统计检验法、熵值法等方法,对三峡库区农户贫困脆弱性的影响因素、贫困脆弱性指数的特征等展开了相应测度研究。论文主要研究结论如下:(1)农户家庭户主年龄偏高且受教育程度低,劳动力数量和水平偏低,家庭人均收入和消费水平不高,家庭可利用的社会关系网有限,家庭收入主要由外出务工收入构成。(2)户主受教育程度、家庭劳动力数、家庭劳动力掌握技能人数均能显著提高家庭的持久收入能力;自然灾害、重大疾病和住房支出会显著增加家庭的贫困脆弱性,而储蓄和外出务工收入能显著降低家庭的贫困脆弱性。(3)农户的整体脆弱性偏高,且高脆弱性农户比例明显高于低脆弱性农户;脆弱性指数与人力资本、自然资本、社会资本和金融资本相关变量呈负向关系,与外部风险变量呈正向关系,且受灾程度严重和有生大病成员的家庭大多数都是呈高度脆弱的。(4)外部风险冲击变量中,高低脆弱性农户在农作物损失、大病支出、住房支出、灾害造成的经济损失、教育支出方面都具有显著差异;内部处理能力变量中,高低脆弱性农户的人力资本、物质资本之间有显著差异,而社会资本、自然资本和金融资本之间无显著差异。
Other AbstractChina has a large but poor rural population and has made remarkable achievements in poverty alleviation of mountainous area since reforming and opening up. But in recent years, the return-to-poverty phenomenon has led to the weakening effect in static anti-poverty strategy, however, external risks such as major natural disasters and diseases are the main reasons of leading to the return-to-poverty phenomenon. After targeted poverty alleviation policy was put forward, in order to accurately identify the poor farmer households and solve the return-to-poverty problem, it is essential to dynamically deal with the poverty problem, so the concept of poverty vulnerability forms at the right moment. In this context, this thesis studies the poverty problem of farmer households in mountainous area from the respective of vulnerability, on the one hand enriching the existing poverty theory and providing reference for making right choice of livelihood strategies of farmer households in mountainous area, on the other hand having important practical significance for the realization of targeted poverty alleviation policy and the sustainable development of farmer households’ livelihood.On the basis of summarizing domestic and abroad research progress about poverty vulnerability, this thesis designs a questionnaire by the framework of external risk shock and internal risk management, and collects the first-hand data based on the questionnaire survey, then using computing model method, statistics-test method, entropy value method and so forth to make measurement research on the influence factors of poverty vulnerability and characteristics of poverty vulnerability index of farmer households in Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The main conclusions of this thesis are as follows:(1) Most of the householders are of old age and less educated, and the quantity and quality of labor force, per capita income and consumption are at a low level. In addition, household available social network is restricted and migrant workers’ income is the main source of household income.(2) The education level of householders, the quantity of household labor force and the quantity of household labor force with skill can significantly improve household permanent earning ability; Natural disasters, serious diseases and expenditures on housing can significantly increase household poverty vulnerability, but savings and migrant workers’ income can reduce household poverty vulnerability.(3) The overall vulnerability of farmer households is on the high side, and farmer households with high vulnerability have a higher ratio than those with low vulnerability; Vulnerability index has negative relation with correlated variables of human capital, nature capital, social capital and financial capital, and has positive relation with external risk variables, moreover, most of those households seriously damaged or in which family members have a serious illness are of high vulnerability.(4) In external risk shock variables, there is significant difference in crop losses, spending on serious diseases, housings and education between famer households with high vulnerability and low vulnerability; In internal risk management variables, there is significant difference in human capital and physical capital but no significant difference in social capital, nature capital and financial capital between famer households with high vulnerability and low vulnerability. 
Pages75
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24613
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
崔诗雨. 地质灾害高发区农户贫困脆弱性的测度研究——以三峡库区为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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