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海拔对大熊猫主食竹(缺苞箭竹Fargesia denudata)的适口性和营养成分的影响
Alternative TitleEffects of different altitudes on the palatability and nutrient contents of bamboo (Fargesia denudata), staple food of the giant panda, in Sichuan, China
王丹林
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张远彬
2017
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword缺苞箭竹 海拔 营养成分 适口性 大熊猫
Abstract缺苞箭竹 (Fargesia denudata) 是岷山山系大熊猫的主食竹,其可食性在大熊猫食物营养质量评价中具有重要意义。为揭示海拔梯度上的温差对大熊猫主食竹适口性和营养成分及其含量的影响,以自然生长在岷山山系核心区四川王朗国家级自然保护区不同海拔(2600、2850 m和3100 m)的缺苞箭竹为研究对象,对其笋、秆和叶的营养成分和适口性进行了分析研究。结果表明:(1)同一海拔缺苞箭竹的单宁和总酚含量表现为叶>秆>笋(P <0.05)。其中,在海拔2600m,叶的总酚含量分别比笋和秆增加了189.7%和66.9%,单宁含量分别增加了75.8%和16.7%;在海拔2850m,叶的总酚含量分别比笋和秆增加了92.4%和42.8%,单宁含量分别增加了46.2%%和18.1%;在海拔3100m,叶的总酚含量分别比笋和秆增加了80.4%和28.6%,单宁含量分别增加了56.7%和11.7%。(2)同一海拔缺苞箭竹的粗蛋白和粗脂肪含量均表现为叶>笋>秆 (P <0.05)。其中,在海拔2600m,叶的粗蛋白含量分别比笋和秆增加了70.3%和397.0%,粗脂肪分别增加了25.9%和201.7%;在海拔2850m,叶的粗蛋白含量分别比笋和秆增加了88.8%和546.1%,粗脂肪分别增加了51.2%和164.5%;在海拔3100 m,叶的粗蛋白含量分别比笋和秆增加了42.7%和264.6%,粗脂肪含量分别增加了64.0%和423.9%。(3)笋和秆的粗蛋白和氨基酸总量随海拔升高而增加 (P <0.05),而海拔对叶的粗脂肪和粗纤维的影响不显著 (P >0.05)。海拔3100m的笋的粗蛋白含量分别比2600m和2850m增加了30.9%和28.1%,而秆的粗蛋白含量分别增加了49.6%和71.6%;笋的氨基酸总量分别比2600m和2850m增加了55.5%和87.7%,而秆的氨基酸总量分别增加了71.9%和89.7%。(4)海拔对叶的可溶性总糖、蔗糖、淀粉无显著影响(P >0.05),对笋和秆的影响无一定规律;海拔对笋的单宁含量影响显著(P <0.05),而对秆和叶的单宁含量无显著影响(P >0.05),相比于海拔2600m,海拔2850m和3100m的笋的单宁含量分别增加了19.7%和8.7%;(5)海拔对笋和叶中总酚含量影响显著(P <0.05),而对秆中总酚含量影响不显著(P >0.05),海拔2600m和2850m的叶的总酚含量分别比海拔3100m叶的总酚含量增加了33.7%和11.9%。缺苞箭竹叶、笋的营养成分含量明显高于竹秆。高海拔有利于缺苞箭竹各器官粗蛋白和氨基酸的积累,不利于粗纤维的积累,这可能使大熊猫的取食选择发生改变,更倾向于取食高海拔营养价值高的笋和叶。本文研究结果对理解海拔、主食竹适口性、营养成分以及大熊猫迁移活动之间的关系有重要作用,可为掌握大熊猫的生活动态和对大熊猫的保护提供科学支撑。 
Other AbstractFargesia denudata is the staple food of giant panda in Minshan Mountain, and the nutritional components of plant species (e.g., contents of crude protein, crude fat, and amino acids), as well as the contents of fiber that influence animals’ food digestibility, collectively determine animal food preferences. In order to reveal the effect of altitude difference on the palatability and nutrient composition, we choose different altitude (2600, 2850m and 3100m) F. denudata of Wanglang National Nature Reserve in Minshan mountain to study content of nutrition and amino acids in the shoot, culm, and leaf. Studies had demonstrated that(1) At the same altitude, the contents of tannin and total phenols were the highest in the leaves, and the lowest in the shoots. Most interestingly, the contents of total phenols in leaves were increased by 189.7% than in shoots, and increased by 66.9% than in culms at 2600m.The contents of tannin in leaves were increased by 75.8% than in shoots, and increased by 16.7% than in culms at 2600m. Besides, the contents of total phenols in leaves were increased by 92.4% than in shoots, and increased by 42.8% than in culms at 2850m.The contents of tannin in leaves were increased by 46.2% than in shoots, and increased by 18.1% than in culms at 2850 m. And the contents of total phenols in leaves were increased by 80.4% than in shoots, and increased by 28.6% than in culms at 3100m.The contents of tannin in leaves were increased by 56.7% than in shoots, and increased by 11.7% than in culms at 3100m.(2) At the same altitude, the contents of crude protein and crude fat were significantly different from those in the leaves, culms and shoots, and the contents were the highest in the leaves. The contents of crude protein in leaves were increased by 70.3% than in shoots, and increased by 397.0% than in culms at 2600m.The contents of crude fat in leaves were increased by 25.9% than in shoots, and increased by 201.7% than in culms at 2600m. And the contents of crude protein in leaves were increased by 88.8% than in shoots, and increased by 546.1% than in culms at 2850m.The contents of crude fat in leaves were increased by 51.2% than in shoots, and increased by 164.5% in culms at 2850m. Besides, the contents of crude protein in leaves were increased by 42.7% than in shoots and increased by 264.6% than in culms at 3100m; The contents of crude fat in leaves were increased by 64.0% than in shoots; increased by 423.9% than in culms at 3100m.(3) Altitude had significant influence on crude protein and amino acids in culms and shoots (P>0.05), and the contents of crude protein and amino acids were increasing with altitude. The altitude had no effect on crude fat and crude fiber in leaves (P >0.05). In the shoots the contents of crude protein at 3100m were increased by 30.9%, 28.1% compared with 2600m, 2850 m; In the culms, the contents of crude protein at 3100m were increased by 49.6%, 71.6% compared with 2600m, 2850m. Besides, the contents of amino acids at 3100m were increased by 55.5%, 87.7% compared with 2600m, 2850m in shoots; The contents of amino acids at 3100m were increased by 71.9%, 89.7% compared with 2600m, 2850m in culms.(4) Altitude had no effect on the total sugar, sucrose and starch in leaves (P>0.05), and no effect on tannin in culms and leaves.The altitude had significant effect on total sugars, sucrose, and starch in culms and shoots, but there were no same effect. Besides, the altitude had significant effect on tannin in shoots, and compared with 2600m, 2800m, 3100m were increased by 19.7%, 8.7%.(5) Altitude had insignificant effect on total phenols in shoots and leaves (P<0.05), but no effect in the culms (P>0.05). Compared with 3100m, the contents of total phenols were increased by 33.7%, 11.9% at 2600m, 2850m.The contents of nutrient in shoots and leaves were significantly higher than that of culms, and the high altitude was beneficial to accumulate crude protein and amino acids in F. denudata, was not beneficial to the crude fiber. Which could change the selection, and prefer to choose the shoots and leaves in higher altitude. The results of this study play an important role in understanding the relationship between altitude, palatability, nutrient composition and migration of giant pandas, to provide scientific support for protecting giant pandas. 
Pages55
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24617
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王丹林. 海拔对大熊猫主食竹(缺苞箭竹Fargesia denudata)的适口性和营养成分的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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