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成都平原林盘的时空变化特征及其驱动力研究——以郫县为例
Alternative TitleStudy on Spatial-Temporal Variation Characteristics and Driving Forces of Linpan in Chengdu Plain-- A Case of Pi County
郭滢蔓
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor徐佩
2017
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword林盘 农村聚落 时空变化特征 驱动力 郫县
Abstract林盘是广泛分布于成都平原的传统农村聚落,主要由农宅及周边林木围(嵌)合成形态规则(大多为近圆形)。它是一种半自然半人工的复合生态系统,是区域生态环境安全和农耕文明传续的重要保障。但是,随着全市城乡一体化快速发展,林盘不断消失或遭受破坏,带来了一系列社会和环境问题。本文以郫县(现郫都区)为研究区,基于2015年和2005年的高分辨率遥感影像,采用无人机航拍、农户问卷调查、地理空间探测等方法,识别林盘的空间分布和组成结构特征,揭示近十年该区域林盘的时空变化规律及其主要驱动力,为林盘保护规划和改造、新型农村社区建设提供科学建议。研究结果表明: (1) 郫县林盘的空间分布差异性较为显著,西北部的分布最为密集,总体表现为以大型林盘为中心,周围聚集大量小、中型林盘。距乡镇建成区较近的区域,大、中型林盘分布较多;林盘与其他农村聚落存在一定的聚集效应;大部分林盘分布靠近道路;林盘分布与农村人口显著正相关,与农民家庭收入负相关。十年期间,郫县林盘数量减少幅度约为27%,空间表现为“南多北少”的变化格局。林盘变化主要体现在小型林盘大量消失,大型林盘面积衰退,并有少量新增或扩展的小型林盘。地理探测器计算结果表明:农民的人均纯收入和从业人员变化的影响力最大,其次是区位条件和建设用地扩张,其他因素影响力相对较小。(2) 典型林盘的规模普遍不大,水平和垂直结构特征明显;林盘植被主要为树林和竹林,植被覆盖率为63%;林盘内植物与农宅基本呈围合或嵌套之势,平均围合度达75.62%;林盘面积越大,房屋数量越多,房屋结构以土木和砖混结构为主,形态多样,既有传统的川西农宅,也有新式民居,垂直高度主要为平房,也有两层和三层新式楼房建筑。消失型和衰退型林盘较多,且消失型林盘的变化程度最大,而保存下来的林盘在规模、形态和结构特征方面也有所变动。不同区域林盘的变化不相同,近郊区林盘的变化更为明显。不同产业功能的林盘变化程度也不同,农耕型林盘的变化相对较小。根据农户问卷调查显示,导致林盘组成和结构变化的主要原因包括居住环境改进需求、生计活动变化和植物依赖程度下降等。 (3) 从内外源驱动力两个方面分析林盘变化的主要影响因素,不同类型的林盘,其变化的驱动力和驱动过程均存在不同程度的差异。①对扩展型林盘变化影响最大的外界驱动为政府的政策许可和区域的经济发展,内源驱动主要为农户的经济增长和居住空间需求提升;衰退型林盘主要受外界驱动的影响,包括道路建设、城市用地扩张和厂房建设等;新增型林盘主要受林盘内农户的种植行为等内源驱动的影响;消失型林盘主要受外界基础设施和城镇建设用地的扩张直接影响。②对近郊区林盘影响最大的外界驱动为区域的城镇化程度和生产环境因素,内源驱动主要为农户经济收入增长;中郊区林盘主要受道路、厂矿等外界基础设施的扩建影响,内源驱动主要为农户耕作条件的改变;远郊区林盘受外界影响较小,主要受农户的种植行为等影响。③传统农耕型林盘的变化主要受内源驱动力的影响如农户的经济收入和对生活舒适度的追求等,而特色产业型、农业旅游型和新型聚居点林盘受外源驱动的影响相对较大,如区域的产业结构、经济发展和政府规划建设等。
Other AbstractThe rural settlements in Chengdu plain are quite different from other areas in China, which are formed with farm houses and trees or bamboo groves, and most of them are round, square or other regular shapes, and we call them as “Linpan”. With the start of the project ”Urban-rural integration” in Chengdu from 2003, Linpan has been changed a lot. To recognize the changing characteristics of spatial pattern of Linpan and the influence factors, we extracted the land use vector data from the interpretation of high resolution remote sensing image in 2005 and 2015, with the interpretation accuracy of 88%. We used the data derived from field investigation, and adopted the methods of kernel density estimation, spatial correlation index, geographic information system(GIS) hot cartography and geography detectors to quantitatively identify the changing characteristics of Linpan, and reveal the responses of spatial pattern differentiation of Linpan to the natural factors, positional condition and social-economic development level. The results are as follows: (1) The overall distribution density of Linpan showed ” dense in north and sparse in south”. The small scale of Linpan’ distribution were more intensive, while the large were more evacuation. The spatial distribution of Linpan showed significantly correlation with natural distances and location conditions. The large scale of Linpan was distributed near the road, The spatial distribution of Linpan was significantly positive correlation with the rural population, while it was significantly negative correlation with the economic income of farmers. In this decade, the distribution center of Linpan migrate toward the northwest of Pixian, the overall changing amount of Linpan showed ” more in south and less in north”. The changing characteristics of Linpan mainly reflected in: the small scale of Linpan disappeared, part of the large scale declined, and a small amount of the new or extended Linpan appeared. According to the calculation of the model, the key influence factors were built-up area expansion and the changing number of rural workers, it showed that built-up area expanded faster, Linpan decreased more; secondly, the influence of geographic conditions and per capita net income of farmers on the change of Linpan was greater, this showed that the more close to the center of the town, the higher the income of farmers, and after the improvement of farmers’ living, the demand for housing was higher. All of this could result in the decreases of Linpan; the change of population structure also could have certain impact on the changing number of Linpan. The more rural population was reduced, the more Linpan disappeared, this can explain that rural population reduction lead to urbanization, and then lead to the hollow and disappear of Linpan; the new rural communities’ establishment could drive part of nearby newly Linpan emerging. (2) The field surveys of the composition and structure of typical Linpan showed that: the scale of the traditional Linpan in Chengdu Plain was generally not very large, the horizontal and vertical structure was obvious. The plant of Linpan from outside to inside can be divided into the shelter forest land, woodland and garden plants, the average degree of vegetation coverage was 63%, and the average degree of vegetation surrounded Linpan was 75.62%. The structure of farmhouses mainly were civil or brick-concrete, the shapes of farmhouses were various, and most of them were single-storey house, two or three layers of new buildings also could be seen. In recent decade, Linpan altered obviously, and there were 5 changing types: the new emergence, the extension, the recession, the disappearance and the structure changing. The extent of the disappearance were the biggest, while there were also some changes in the scale, types and structure of the preserved Linpan. In different areas, the changes of Linpan were different, and in the suburban areas, the extent of changing was the biggest. According to the results of the questionnaire survey, the main influencing factors of the changing of Linpan’s composition and structure were farmers’ demand for living, production and the reliance on plants. (3) The influence factors were divided into exogenous and internal driving force, and the exogenous driving force include regional production environment factors, infrastructure construction, the new rural community construction and the regional economic development. The internal driving force include the farmers transfer flow, the farmers’ economic income, the farmers’ production and living ways and so on. For different types of Linpan, the driving force and driving process both were different. ①For the extension, main exogenous driving force were the government’s policy and the regional economy, and main internal driving force were the farmers’ economic income and their demanding; For the recession and the disappearance, the main influence factor included infrastructure construction, the new rural community construction and so on; For the new emergence, the main influence factor were the changing of farmers’ planting pattern.②For the Linpan of suburban areas, main exogenous driving force were the level of urbanization and the regional production environment factors; For outer suburbs areas, the main influence factor was the changing of farmers’ planting pattern.③For the traditional Linpan, the main influence factor was the internal driving force include the farmers’ economic income, the farmers’ living ways and so on; For the characteristic industry, the agricultural tourism and the new Linpan, the main influence factor was the exogenous driving force include regional production environment factors and the government’s policy and so on. All results of above can provide policy guidance and scientific basis for the spatial layout optimization, protection and reconstruction of Linpan and the new rural construction planning. 
Pages110
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24618
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郭滢蔓. 成都平原林盘的时空变化特征及其驱动力研究——以郫县为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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