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增温对木本植物的影响:整合分析与案例研究
Alternative TitleEffects of warming on woody plants: a meta analysis and a case study
卢元兵
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor段宝利
2017
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword增温 木本植物 整合分析 岷江冷杉 生物量
Abstract全球气候变暖趋势已成为科学界共识,随着大气中CO2等温室气体浓度的持续增加,全球地表平均温度将会进一步升高。与2005年之前的二十年相对比,可以预测到本世纪末全球地表温度平均将增加0.3-4.8℃。这种潜在的温度升高对陆地生态系统和生态系统过程的直接和间接影响可能是复杂的,在时间和空间上也有很大的变化。与草本植物相对比,木本植物对全球变暖的响应更为强烈。因此,森林树种及其生态系统对温度升高的响应已经成为国内外生态学家最为关注的热点问题之一。由于陆地植物生物量对增温的响应依赖于不同的植物种类和功能类型,在一个相对变暖的环境中,增温幅度、试验持续时间和地理纬度会影响到植物个体的生理生化指标,进而会影响到森林生态系统的组成和结构以及生物多样性。综合考虑以上因素,本研究应用整合分析(Meta-analysis)方法中的随机效应模型探讨了增温对木本植物生理生态影响的一般规律,为预测森林生态系统应对全球气候变暖的响应提供参考和依据。此外,本文以生长在不同海拔的岷江冷杉(Abies faxoniana)幼苗为研究的试验材料,采用开顶式生长室(OTC)的方法,探讨不同海拔岷江冷杉幼苗对增温的响应,为验证Meta分析的结论提供依据。主要结论如下:增温显著地促进了木本植物的光合作用,落叶乔木和落叶灌木的积极响应更为强烈,然而常绿灌木的光合作用却受到明显的抑制。不同的增温幅度和试验持续时间情况下,木本植物的光合作用对增温的不同响应表现出显著地差异性。在增温的影响下,中纬度地区木本植物的光合作用变化更为明显。增温显著地促进了落叶乔木、常绿乔木、落叶灌木的蒸腾作用,然而却明显地抑制了常绿灌木的蒸腾作用。不同的植物物种、功能类型、增温幅度、试验持续时间和纬度带之间的木本植物的蒸腾作用对增温的响应表现出显著地差异性。增温显著地促进了木本植物的气孔导度,其中落叶乔木和落叶灌木对增温的积极响应较为明显。不同的试验持续时间条件下,木本植物气孔导度对增温的响应表现出显著地差异性。增温显著的促进了木本植物叶片的暗呼吸作用以及可溶性蛋白、叶绿素a、叶绿素b的含量,显著的抑制了叶片光呼吸作用和水分利用效率(WUE),而碳含量在叶片中几乎没有什么变化。增温对木本植物叶片中脯氨酸、总叶绿素、氮含量的促进作用不明显,对木本植物叶片胞间CO2浓度、可溶性糖、淀粉、叶绿素a与叶绿素b之比(Chl a/ Chl b)、碳氮比抑制作用不显著。试验中,增温对不同海拔岷江冷杉幼苗相关指标的影响与上述结论基本一致。增温显著的促进了木本植物的株高生长、基径生长和叶面积,不同分类情况下,增温对木本植物的生长均表现出显著地正效应。另外,常绿木本和落叶木本植物的株高生长、叶面积对增温的响应差异显著。增温对木本植物的根冠比具有负效应,而对比叶面积(SLA)具有正效应,但是两者均不显著。不同的增温幅度条件下,木本植物的根冠比对增温的响应表现出显著地差异性。试验中,增温对不同海拔岷江冷杉幼树比叶面积的影响与上述结论一致。增温显著的促进了木本植物的生物量,总生物量增加了15.05%,其对不同部位的作用大小依次为:叶生物量(+21.45%)、茎生物量(+20.09%)、根生物量(+14.25%)。木本植物地上部分生物量(+38.31%)的变化明显大于地下部分(+14.25%)。乔木生物量对增温的积极响应比灌木更为强烈。不同增温幅度对木本植物叶生物量变化的影响具有显著的不同,落叶木本和常绿木本植物地上部分生物量对增温的响应具有显著的差异性,不同的试验持续时间条件下,木本植物总生物量对增温的响应具有显著的差异性。增温影响下,木本植物生物量与增温幅度、试验持续时间和纬度呈现出二次关系,中纬度地区的木本植物生物量对增温的积极响应更为显著。
Other AbstractGlobal warming trend has become a consensus in the scientific community, with the continuous increase of greenhouse gas concentrations such as CO2 in the atmosphere, the global average surface temperature will rise further. Compared with 1986-2005, it is estimated that the global average temperature of the surface will rise by 0.3-4.8 ℃ by the end of this century. The direct and indirect effects of this potential increase in temperature on terrestrial ecosystems and ecosystem processes are likely to be complex and highly varied in time and space. The response of woody plants to global warming is greater than that of herbaceous plants. Therefore, the response of forest tree species and its ecosystem to the increase of temperature has become one of the most important hot issues of domestic and foreign ecologists. Dependence of the terrestrial plant biomass responses to warming upon terrestrial plant species and functional types, warming magnitudes and experimental durations as well as geographic latitudes will have consequent influences on the physiological and biochemical indicators of the individual plants, which in turn affect community composition and structure, biodiversity of the forest ecosystem in a warmer environment. Considering the above factors, this study uses the random effect model in the Meta-analysis method to explore the general rule of the effect of warming on the ecophysiology impacts of woody plants, and provide a reference and basis for predicting the impact of global climate change on forest ecosystems. In addition, according to the Abies faxoniana seedlings grown at different elevations as the experimental materials, using the open top chamber (OTC) method, The responses of fir seedlings to the warming were studied, which provided the basis for the conclusion of meta analysis. The main conclusions are as follows.Warming significantly promoted the photosynthesis of woody plants, the positive response of deciduous trees and deciduous shrubs was more obvious, but the photosynthesis of evergreen shrubs was significantly inhibited. The photosynthesis of woody plants showed a significant difference in response to warming under different warming magnitude and experimental duration. The response of photosynthesis of woody plants to warming is more obvious in middle latitudes. Warming significantly increased the transpiration of deciduous trees, evergreen trees and deciduous shrubs, but significantly decreased the transpiration of evergreen shrubs. The response of transpiration of woody plants showed a significant difference in different plant species, functional types, warming magnitudes, experimental durations and latitude zones. Warming significantly promoted stomatal conductance of woody plants. In addition, the positive response of deciduous trees and deciduous shrubs was obvious. The response of stomatal conductance to the warming was significantly different under different experimental durations.Warming significantly increased the dark respiration of woody plants, as well as leaf soluble protein, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b. Warming has an significant negative effect on water use efficiency and photorespiration of woody plants, and the carbon content in the leaves was almost unchanged. The positive effects of warming on the contents of proline, total chlorophyll and nitrogen in leaves of woody plants were not significant. and the decrease of intercellular CO2 concentration, the contents of soluble sugar, starch, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b ratio (Chl a/Chl b), the ratio of carbon and nitrogen was not significant. In the experiment, the effect of warming on the relevant indexes of Abies faxoniana at different elevations was consistent with the above conclusions.Warming significantly increased the growth of plant height, basal diameter and leaf area of woody plants. Under different conditions, the increase of temperature had significant positive effects on the growth of woody plants. In addition, the height and leaf area of evergreen and deciduous woody plants were significantly different in response to warming. The effect of warming on the root-shoot ratio of woody plants was decreased, while the specific leaf area (SLA) was increased, but neither of them was significant. Under different warming magnitudes, the root-shoot ratio of woody plants showed a significant difference in response to warming. In the experiment, the effect of warming on the specific leaf area of Abies faxoniana seedlings at different elevations was consistent with the above conclusions.Warming significantly promoted the biomass of woody plants, the total biomass increased by 15.05%, the order of different parts of the size effect was leaf biomass (+21.45%), stem biomass (+20.09%), and root biomass (+14.25%). The above-ground biomass (+38.31%) of the woody plants was significantly greater than that of the below-ground part(+14.25%). The response of tree biomass to warming was more positive than that of shrub. There were significant differences in the response of woody plant leaf biomass to different warming magnitudes. The response of aboveground biomass to temperature increase has a significant difference between deciduous woody and evergreen woody. The response of the total biomass of woody plants to warming was significantly different under different experimental durations. Warming-induced changes in woody plants biomass showed quadratic relationships with warming magnitudes, experimental durations and latitudes. Stimulations of biomass under warming were statistically significant at the mid-latitude regions. 
Pages89
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24621
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
卢元兵. 增温对木本植物的影响:整合分析与案例研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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