IMHE OpenIR  > 山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
模拟增温对贡嘎山高山草甸群落结构和功能的影响
Alternative TitleEffects of experimental warming on community structure and function in alpine meadow, Gongga Mountain
张莉
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor杨燕
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword高山草甸 模拟增温 群落多样性 繁殖物候 叶片功能特征
Abstract全球变暖正在影响着植物群落的物种组成、群落演替和生物多样性,并直接或间接的影响着生态系统的结构和功能,其中高山生态系统对全球变暖的响也尤其地迅速和敏感。横断山区是我国西南纵向岭谷区的主要组成部分,是世界范围内生物多样性最为关键的核心区域之一,因此横断山区生态系统对气候变化的响应对研究全球变暖问题有着重要意义。本研究在横断山中段的贡嘎山东坡的雅家埂高山草甸为研究对象,依托野外模拟增温与山体垂直带移栽试验2个试验平台,在海拔3500 m ─4100 m分别选择了3个面积为20*20 m的高山草甸作为研究样地,即高寒样地(High Site,简称H样地)、高山样地(Alpine Site,简称A样地)和中位样地(Middle Site,简称M样地),采用OTC模拟增温和向低海拔带土移栽模拟增温的方法,以探讨高寒草甸主要植物和植物群落的个体特征、物种多样性及净初级生产力对气候变化响应与适应过程与机理。结果如下:1、模拟增温对群落结构和多样性以及净初级生产力的影响在OTC增温和移位增温后优势物种(嵩草属除外)重要值下降,低矮物种重要值上升。在H样地OTC增温后,群落物种多样性、功能多样性降低,群落杂类草高度和、盖度和降低,禾类草高度和、盖度和增加,群落高度和、盖度和增加,净初级生产力增加;在移位增温后,群落物种多样性、功能多样性降低,禾类草和杂类草的高度和、盖度和增加,群落高度和盖度和增加,净初级生产力增加。在A样地OTC增温后,物种多样性下降、功能多样性增加,禾类草和杂类草的高度和、盖度和均下降,群落高度和、盖度和下降,净初级生产力降低;在移位增温后,群落物种多样性、功能多样性增加,禾类草高度和、盖度和均增加,杂类草的高度和增加、盖度和降低,群落高度和增加、盖度和降低,净初级生产力增加。2、模拟增温对植物繁殖物候的影响OTC增温和移位增温均改变了高山草甸的繁殖物候。OTC增温和移位增温均使得H、A样地群落中多数物种繁殖物候各个阶段的起始时期、峰值时期提前,使得多数植物开花阶段持续时间长度缩短,同时,不同物种同一物候阶段对OTC增温和移位增温的响应存在差异,且同一物种的不同物候阶段、物候时期对模拟增温的响应也存在差异。3、模拟增温对植物叶片功能特征的影响对于H样地物种,OTC增温和移位增温均增加了植物叶面积、比叶面积和叶片光能获得效率,降低了叶片δ13C 值,提高了叶片水分利用效率;OTC增温后,δ15N增加,植物N元素利用效率增加,叶片C/N、C/P增加,单位养分供应量所能达到的生产力增加;移位增温后,δ15N降低,植物N元素利用效率降低,叶片C/N、C/P降低,叶片单位养分供应量所能达到的生产力降低。对于A样地,OTC增温和移位增温均增加了植物叶面积,降低了比叶面积和光能利用效率,降低了叶片δ13C 值,提高了叶片水分利用效率、δ15N增加,植物N元素利用效率增加,叶片C/N、C/P增加,单位养分供应量所能达到的生产力增加。4、模拟增温对群落多样性与生产力关系的影响OTC增温和移位增温后,群落物种多样性、功能多样性与群落地上净初级生产力之间的关系改变,群落优势物种叶片功能特征与植物地上净初级生产力之间关系改变。 
Other AbstractGlobal warming is affecting the species composition, succession and diversity of plant communities, then directly or indirectly affecting the structure and function of ecosystems, in which the alpine ecosystem is more rapid and sensitive to increasing temperature. Hengduan Mountain is a major component of Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region of Southwest China and one of the most critical core areas of biodiversity in the world, therefore, the study of responses in Hengduan Mountain ecosystem on climate change is of great significance under the background of global warming. Based on field warming simulations and vertical transplanting test platforms, we choice 3 sites to conduct our experiment between 3500 m to 4100 m in the east slope of Gongga Mountain, i.e., High Site, Alpine Site and Middle Site. In this study, Open Top Chambers (OTC) and soil-plants translocation were used in the field to simulate warming. Our research objectives were to explore the adaptation process and mechanism of species diversity and net primary productivity changes on climate warming in alpine meadows and dominated species. The results as flowed:1. Effects of experimental warming on community structure and aboveground net primary productivityBoth OTC warming and Translocation warming decreased the important value of the dominanted species of the two sites. For H site. OTC warming decreased the community Richness, Shannon-winner index and community functional diversity, increased the total coverage and height of graminoid group but forb group decreased, increased the community total height, coverage of and the communities net primary productivity. Translocation warming decreased the community Richness, Shannon-winner index and community functional diversity, increased the total coverage and height of both graminoid group and forb group, the community total height and coverage, and the community net primary productivity. For A site, OTC warming increased community functional diversity but decreased the community Richness, Shannon-winner index, the total coverage and height of both graminoid group and forb group, the community total height and coverage, and the communit net primary productivity. Translocation warming increased the community Richness, Shannon-winner index and functional diversity, the total coverage and height of graminoid group, the total height of forb group increased but decreased the total coverage of forb group. Then Translocation warming increased community total height of the community but decreased the community total coverage, and increased the community net primary productivity.2. Effects of experimental warming on plant reproductive phenologyBoth OTC warming and Translocation warming changed the reproductive phenology of alpine meadows species. Overall, OTC warming and Translocation warming advanced the initial and peak stages of reproductive phenology of most of the plants, and shortened the duration of the flowering stage of most of the species. However, the responses of the same phenological phase of different species were different on the experimental warming, and even the responses of different phenological phases of the same species on experimental warming also were different.3. Effects of experimental warming on leaves functional traitsFor H site species, both OTC warming and Translocation warming increased the leaves area, SLA and the efficiency of the leaves to obtain light energy, and decreased δ13C value then increased the water use efficiency. Moreover, OTC warming increased δ15N and then increased the N use efficiency of plants, increased the C/N、C/P value and promoted the achieved productivity by unit nutrient of leaves. Translocation warming decreased the C/N、C/P value and reduced achieved productivity by unit nutrient of leaf. For A site species, both OTC warming and Translocation warming increased the leaf area, but decreased the SLA and then decresed the light energy use efficiency, decreased δ13C value then increased the water use efficiency and then increased the water use efficiency. More over, increased δ15N and then increased the N use efficiency of plant, increased the C/N、C/P value and promoted the achieved productivity by unit nutrient of leaves.4. Changes of relationship between ANPP and community diversity under experimental warmingOTC warming and Translocation warming altered the relationship between community species diversity, community functional diversity and the net primary productivity of the community, changed the relationship between the leaf functional traits and the net primary production of of the dominant species. 
Pages95
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24752
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张莉. 模拟增温对贡嘎山高山草甸群落结构和功能的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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