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长期施肥对紫色土坡地土壤团聚体与磷素赋存形态的影响
Alternative TitleEffects of long–term fertilization on soil aggregates and phosphorus fractions on sloping upland of purple soil
翟龙波
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor唐家良
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline土壤学
Keyword长期施肥试验 紫色土 有机物料 土壤团聚体 磷素
Abstract紫色土为长江上游农耕区主要土壤,多分布在山地丘陵,其耕层厚度薄(30-80cm),土壤有机质含量普遍偏低,作物养分利用率低。为深入了解紫色土坡耕地长期施肥过程中的磷素养分库容和供应机制,本文基于2002年开始的长期施肥定位试验,分析研究了西南紫色土区玉米/小麦轮作制度不同施肥方式下土壤团聚体发育特征,并结合碳、氮转化过程探讨紫色土培肥过程中磷素赋存形态及转化规律。主要结果和结论如下:1)长期有机无机配合施肥促进大团聚体的形成,不同施肥平均重量直径(MWD)依次为OMNPK>RSDNPK>NPK>CK;长期施肥均不同程度提高了各粒径土壤团聚体中有机碳、全氮、全磷、速效磷及各形态无机磷含量,其中主要提高了较大团聚体(>2 mm、0.25-2 mm)中养分含量。无机肥配施粪肥处理提升有机碳和全氮的效果优于无机肥配施秸秆,而对全磷和速效磷提升效果则相反。长期有机无机配合施用可提高各粒径团聚体中Ex-P、Al-P、Ca-P和Or-P含量,并促进Al-P、Ca-P向大团聚体转移,提高了土壤对有效磷素的保持能力。有机质添加处理在提高土壤有机碳和有机磷含量的同时,也对土壤磷素转化、提高磷素有效性具有重要影响。2)添加生物炭和硝化抑制剂的长期定位试验综合分析结果表明:长期添加生物炭和硝化抑制剂显著促进紫色土坡耕地土壤大团聚体形成,提高了团聚体稳定性,对土壤结构改良有显著效果。长期添加生物炭和硝化抑制剂均不同程度提高了各粒径土壤团聚体中有机碳含量,添加硝化抑制剂显著提高了各粒径土壤团聚体中全氮含量。长期添加生物炭和硝化抑制剂体土壤全磷和速效磷含量并无提升效果。有机碳、全氮、全磷、Ex-P主要分布于较大团聚体中(>2 mm 、0.25-2 mm);生物炭与硝化抑制剂添加均明显提高了Al-P含量,其中硝化抑制剂处理提升最大;生物炭添加明显提高了各粒级团聚体中闭蓄态磷(O-P)含量;硝化抑制剂添加则明显提高了各粒级团聚体中有机磷(Or-P)含量。硝化抑制剂添加可在一定程度提高土壤磷素供应有效性。3)总体而言,长期施肥后,土壤有机碳和全氮含量逐渐增加。其中有机物料添加显著提高了土壤有机碳含量,添加有机粪肥效果最为显著,生物炭添加处理明显提高了土壤有机碳含量,但并没有明显提高土壤全N含量。总体而言,OMNPK处理全P和速效P最高,相较其他处理,其增加值可能主要来自于Al-P和Or-P。硝化抑制剂处理提高了Al-P和Or-P含量,其原因也可能与该处理地下生物量增加或微生物群落改变有关。作物产量与全P、速效P、Ex-P、Ca-P均显著正相关(P<0.05),但与土壤碳、氮并无明显关系。氮肥利用率也呈现相似的规律。总而言之,加强土壤磷素有效管理可有效促进氮、磷肥利用率提高,减少田间氮、磷损失,并提高作物产量。
Other AbstractPurple soil is a major soil type under tillage and widely distributed in hilly area in upper Yangtze river region. The soil has a typical “binary structure of soil–bedrock” with shallow soil layer of 30-80 cm and lower content of organic matter. In order to elucidate the effects of long term fertilization on soil phosphorus stock and fractions, therefore, this study utilized the long term fertilization experiment within an intensive wheat (Triticum Aestivium L)–maize (Zea mays L) cropping system to study the soil aggregates distribution, phosphorus factions and possible transformation pathways in comparison with carbon and nitrogen at aggregate levels. The main conclusions are as follows.1)Through four fertilization treatments including no fertilizer (CK), mineral fertilizer (NPK), pig manure with mineral fertilizer (OMNPK) and crop straw residue with mineral fertilizer (RSDNPK). Soil samples from 0-20 cm soil layer were separated into four soil aggregations (>2 mm large macroaggregates, 0.25 - 2 mm small macroaggregates,<0.25 mm microaggregates and <0.053 mm slit–clay microaggregates) using wet sieving method. The results showed that organic fertilizers combined with inorganic fertilization promoted the formation of larger aggregates, with the mean weight diameter (MWD) order of OMNPK>RSDNPK>NPK>CK, while the addition of organic matter also elevated the soil organic carbon (SOC), TN, TP, available P and other P fractions (Ex-P, Al-P, Ca-P, Or-P), especially in the larger aggregates (>2 mm, 0.25-2 mm). RSDNPK treatment had better performance in enhancing SOC and TN compared with OMNPK, while vice versa for TP and available P. Organic matter addition increased soil fertility and provided a key environment for phosphorus transformation towards plant-available use. 2) A long-term in situ experiment showed that long-term addition of biochar and DCD significantly promoted the formation of large aggregates of purple soil, improved the stability of soil aggregates and soil structure. Long-term addition of biochar and DCD increased the organic carbon content of various particle-sizes aggregates with different degree. The addition of DCD significantly increased total nitrogen content in soil aggregates of various sizes. Long-term addition of biochar and nitrification inhibitors did not increase soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus content. Organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and Ex-P were mainly distributed in larger aggregates (>2mm, 0.25-2mm); addition of biochar and DCD significantly increased Al-P content, The increase of agent treatment with nitrification inhibition was the largest; the addition of biochar significantly increased the content of O-P in every particle-size aggregate; and the addition of DCD significantly increased the content of organic phosphorus (Or-P) in every particle size aggregate. The DCD can increase the availability of soil phosphorus to release.3) After long-term fertilization, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content gradually increased. The addition of organic materials significantly increased the soil organic carbon content, and the effect of adding organic manure was the most significant. The addition of biochar significantly increased the soil organic carbon content but did not significantly increase the soil total N content. Overall, OMNK treatment keeped the highest P and Available phosphorous values. Compared with other treatments, the value-added may mainly come from Al-P and Or-P. Treatment with DCD increased the content of Al-P and Or-P. The reason may also be related to the increase in underground biomass or changes in microbial communities. There was a significant positive correlation between crop yield and total P, available P, Ex-P and Ca-P (P<0.05) but no significant relationship with soil carbon and nitrogen. Nitrogen fertilizer utilization also shows a similar pattern. In a word, strengthening the effective management of soil phosphorus can effectively promote the utilization of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer, reduce the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in the field and increase crop yield. 
Pages62
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24753
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
翟龙波. 长期施肥对紫色土坡地土壤团聚体与磷素赋存形态的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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