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土壤营养元素对大熊猫主食竹克隆生长及可食性的影响
Alternative TitleEffect of Soil Nutrient on the Growth, Palatability and Nutrients of Staple Food Bamboo for the Giant panda in Sichuan, China
韩燕
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张远彬
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword缺苞箭竹 土壤 生长 营养成分 适口性
Abstract食物是动物存在的基础,是动物能量的主要来源,对动物的觅食选择具有十分重要的意义。大熊猫作为一种特殊的植食性动物,竹类植物的生长、适口性和营养成分对其生存、繁育和种群稳定性具有重要作用。本文以岷山山系大熊猫主食竹之一的缺苞箭竹为研究对象,采集海拔、林冠郁闭度、坡度、坡向、坡位等相对一致的岷江冷杉林下的缺苞箭竹及其生长的土壤,测定克隆分株生长(株高、基径)、适口性(单宁、总酚、含水率)、营养成分(粗蛋白、粗脂肪、氨基酸总量、粗纤维素、纤维素、非结构性碳水化合物和矿质元素)以及土壤中营养元素含量。通过各种统计分析方法,探讨缺苞箭竹生长、适口性和营养成分与土壤营养元素之间的相互关系,解释土壤营养元素对缺苞箭竹克隆生长和可食性的影响。 主要结果有:(1)土壤全氮、碱解氮、全磷、钙、铜和锌含量以及土壤pH值与缺苞箭竹克隆分株高度有显著的正相关关系(p <0.05),而土壤中有效磷、全钾、有效钾和镁的含量与缺苞箭竹克隆分株高度之间的相关性不显著(p >0.05)。与缺苞箭竹克隆分株基径有显著正相关关系的是土壤全氮、碱解氮和钙的含量(p <0.05),而与土壤的全磷、有效磷、全钾、有效钾、镁、铜和锌的含量以及土壤pH值没显著相关性(p >0.05)。(2)缺苞箭竹笋、秆和叶中适口性和营养成分含量有显著差异(p <0.05)。缺苞箭竹叶片中的蛋白质、氨基酸、非结构性碳水化合物与矿质元素含量之间有相互增效关系,而单宁和总酚含量与营养成分中的某系指标之间存在负相关或者不相关。(3)笋中单宁含量与土壤中全钾含量呈显著负相关关系(p <0.05),而与土壤有效钾含量呈显著正相关关系(p <0.05),总酚含量与土壤营养元素没有显著相关性(p >0.05);秆中总酚和单宁含量与土壤营养元素含量没有显著相关性(p >0.05);叶中总酚含量与土壤碱解氮呈显著正相关关系(p <0.05),与土壤有效钾含量呈显著负相关关系(p <0.05);单宁含量与土壤锌含量呈显著负相关关系(p <0.05)。(4)缺苞箭竹笋中粗蛋白含量与土壤碱解氮、钙、pH值有显著正相关关系(p <0.05),笋中粗脂肪与土壤全磷和有效磷含量有显著正相关关系(p <0.05),笋中氨基酸、纤维素和粗纤维含量与土壤营养元素没有显著相关性(p >0.05);缺苞箭竹秆中营养成分受土壤营养元素影响较小,其中氨基酸总量与土壤全磷含量呈显著正相关(p <0.05),纤维素含量与土壤锌含量呈显著负相关(p <0.05),而粗蛋白、粗脂肪和粗纤维与土壤营养元素没有显著相关性(p >0.05);叶中粗脂肪含量与土壤碱解氮、钙和pH呈显著负相关关系(p <0.05),叶中粗纤维受土壤营养元素影响较大,粗纤维与土壤碱解氮、有效磷和钙含量均呈显著负相关关系(p<0.05),氨基酸总量与土壤碱解氮、钙含量呈显著正相关关系(p <0.01),而粗纤维含量与土壤营养元素没有显著相关性(p >0.05)。(5)土壤营养元素与叶中适口性各指标的平均关联值在0.35<γij≤0.65之间,土壤营养元素对叶中适口性影响较小;土壤营养元素与秆中适口性各指标的平均关联度为0.60≤γij≤91,土壤营养元素与秆中适口性存在中度或强关联性;土壤营养元素秆中适口性各指标的平均关联度为0.60≤γij≤0.91,土壤营养元素与秆中适口性存在中度或强关联性。缺苞箭竹笋的适口性最好,其次是叶片,最差的是竹杆;竹叶中各营养指标显著优于笋和秆;竹叶和竹笋分别是营养价值最高和适口性最好的。土壤中全氮、碱解氮、钙与缺苞箭竹株高和基径有显著正相关关系,土壤氮是影响缺苞箭竹生长发育的主要因子。缺苞箭竹笋和秆的适口性和营养成分受土壤影响显著,而叶的适口性和营养成分与土壤关联性相对较弱。 
Other AbstractFood is the basic condition survival of the animals ,is the source of energy for animal. The palatability and nutrient composition for animal feeding is very important. As a special herbivorous animal, the growth, palatability and nutrient composition of bamboo play an important role in the survival and reproduction of giant pandas. In order to reveal the effect of soil nutrient on the growth, palatability and nutrient composition, we choose Fargesia denudata as the research object. And collecting the bamboo and its corresponding soil, measuring plant growth (height, basal diameter), palatability (tannin, total phenol, moisture content), nutrient composition (crude protein, crude fat, total amino acid, crude cellulose, cellulose, non-structural carbohydrates and mineral elements) and nutrient content in soil, to explore the soil nutrient whether affected the growth, palatability and nutrient of bamboo. The analysis results are as follows: (1)The contents of TN, AN, TP, Ca, Zn, Cu and pH in soil were significantly positively correlated with the height of Fargesia denudata (p <0.05), while the content of AP, TK, AK and Mg in soil was not significant (p >0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the basal diameters of the bamboo and TN, AN, Ca in the soil (p <0.05). And there was no significant correlation between the contents of copper, copper and zinc and soil pH (p >0.05). (2)There was a significant difference in palatability and nutrient content between bamboo shoots, culms and leaves (p <0.05). There is a synergistic relationship between protein, amino acids, non-structural carbohydrates, and mineral element content in leaves of Fargesia denudata, and tannin and total phenol content are negatively correlated or uncorrelated with a series of indicators in nutrients. (3)There was a significant negative correlation between tannin content in shoot and TP content in soil (p <0.05), and there was a significant positive correlation with AK (p <0.05). There was no significant difference between total phenolic content and soil nutrient elements (p >0.05). There was no significant correlation between total phenolic and tannin content in culms and soil nutrient content (p >0.05); There was a significant positive correlation between total phenolic content in leaves and AN (p <0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between AK (p <0.05) and tannin content was significantly negatively correlated with Zn content (p <0.05). (4)There was a significant positive correlation between the crude protein content and the AN, Ca, pH values (p <0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the content of TP, AP in soil and crude fat in bamboo shoots (p <0.05).The nurient in shoot were less affected by soil nutrient, among which total amino acids had a significant positive correlation with TP in soil, celluose had a negative correlation with Zn in soil (p <0.05). There was no significant correlation between crude protein, crude fat and crude fiber in clums and soil nutrient elements (p >0.05). The content of crude fat in leaves was significantly negatively correlated with AK, Ca, and pH (p <0.05). Crude fat in leaves was greatly affected by soil nutrient,and crude fiber in leaves had a significantly negatively correlated with AN, AP and Ca in soil (p <0.05). and there was a significant positive correlation between total amino acids and AN, Ca in soil. (5)The average correlation between soil nutrient elements and palatability index in leaves was between 0.35<γij≤0.65. The effect of soil nutrient elements on palatability in leaves was small; The average values of soil nutrient elements and palatability in clums were average the correlation degree is 0.60≤γij≤0.91.There is a moderate or strong correlation between soil nutrient elements and palatability in clums, the average correlation degree of palatability indicators in soil nutrient element clums is 0.60≤γij≤0.91, there is moderate or strong correlation in palatability.The palatableness of shoots was the best, followed by the leaves, and the bamboo clum was the worst. The nutrition indexes in bamboo leaves were significantly better than bamboo shoots and clums. There was a significant positive correlation between TN, AN, Ca and height and base diameter of Fargesia denudata. And N was the main factor affecting the growth and development of Fargesia denudata. The palatability and nutrient composition of bamboo shoots and culms were significantly affected by the soil, while the leaf palatability and nutrient composition were relatively weak to the soil. 
Pages85
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24754
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
韩燕. 土壤营养元素对大熊猫主食竹克隆生长及可食性的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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