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土壤化学性质对烟草吸收六种金属元素和烟叶品质的影响
Alternative TitleThe Effect of Soil Chemical properties on the absorption of heavy metals in tobacco and tobacco quality
杨蒙岭
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张丹
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline土壤学
Keyword植烟土壤 重金属 土壤化学性质 NPK配比 烟草品质
Abstract烟草是我国重要的经济作物,也是对重金属吸收较强的作物。烟草吸收过量的重金属后,蛋白质、核酸和细胞膜等结构被破坏,细胞正常代谢被干扰,阻碍烟草正常的生长发育,降低烟叶产量和品质。土壤中重金属是烟草体内重金属的主要来源,土壤理化性质对重金属生物有效性影响显著,进而影响烟草对重金属的吸收。目前,对烟叶重金属的研究主要为集中在Pb和Cd在烟叶中的含量和重金属对烟叶生物量、品质的影响。而系统完善地分析六种重金属(Cd、Cr、Pb、Hg、Ni、Mn)在烟草中的分布以及土壤性质与烟叶重金属含量相互关系的研究相对缺乏。本研究在攀枝花平地、泸州古蔺箭竹、广元普安、宜宾兴文随机设置大田试验,采集烟草样品(140个)和土壤样品(20个),分析六种重金属在烟草不同部位的分布规律,研究土壤化学性质对烟草吸收重金属规律的影响,建立烟草重金属含量的预测模型。通过盆栽实验,模拟Cd污染和Cd-Pb复合污染,设置NPK肥的不同配比,分析不同配比下烟草吸收Cd、Pb的差异,评价各处理下烟草品质差异,揭示烟草化学成分指标与土壤金属含量的关系。主要结果如下:(1)与我国其他烟田相比,平地和普安和古蔺烟田烟草中六种重金属含量偏低,兴文烟田烟叶中Cd和Ni的含量偏高,Cr、Pb、Mn和Hg含量适宜。四个烟田烟草不同器官中Cd的含量大小顺序均为Cd叶>Cd茎>Cd根,烟叶中Cd含量大小顺序为:Cd下部叶>Cd中部叶>Cd上部叶。烟茎中Cd浓度高低顺序为:Cd上部茎>Cd中部茎>Cd下部茎。四个烟田烟草不同器官中Pb、Cr、Ni、Mn的含量大小顺序均为C根>叶>茎,不同部位烟叶中Pb、Cr、Ni、Mn含量大小顺序为:下部叶>中部叶>上部叶。烟草生物富集因子BCF、转移因子TF、生物累积因子BAF反应了烟叶吸收、转移重金属的能力,通过计算表明四个烟田烟草对Cd的BCF的(1.14~1.90)、TF(2.51~4.02)、BAF(5.96~20.72)显著高于其余金属元素。(2)通过Pearson相关性分析表明烟草根部重金属含量受到土壤性质影响明显,其次为烟叶。不同部位烟叶中Cd、Pb含量受土壤性质影响比其余四种重金属显著。土壤pH、K、N、速效磷(AP)、速效钾(AK)、有效氮(AN)以及土壤重金属含量均对烟叶中Cd影响显著(P<0.05)。土壤化学性质对不同部位烟叶中Cd的预测模型为:Y上部叶=-45.07-9.32*XK-3.86*XpH-0.11*XCr+0.3*XNi-27*XN;Y中部叶=59.65-12.9*XK+0.09*XAN-4.60*XpH-0.15*XCr+0.29*Ni-64.23*XN;Y下部叶=-10.38+0.02*XAN+1.32*XpH-0.08*XPb+0.11*XNi(3)在Cd污染条件下,高磷钾(N1P2K2)处理三个部位烟叶Cd含量降低最为明显,分别降低了29.96%、35.38%和33.78%;在Cd-Pb复合污染条件下,高磷(N1P2K1)处理三个部位烟叶Cd含量降低明显,分别降低了23.02%、16.91%、10.90%。两种污染条件下不同部位烟叶中Cd含量与土壤中Cd、有效Cd含量呈负相关关系,土壤中Cd与有效Cd含量呈显著正相关关系,说明在向土壤中添加的外源镉总量一定的情况下,土壤中Cd含量越少,被植物吸收的Cd就越多。(4)在Cd-Pb复合污染条件下,相比于常规施肥(N1P1K1)处理,N1P2K1处理下可以明显提高烟草生物量,达到40.40 g,高氮(N2P1K1)处理烟草株高增长明显,提高了9.72 cm。在Cd污染条件下,相比N1P1K1处理,N1P2K2处理下烟叶总干重提高6.60 g,达到40.33 g。高氮钾(N2P1K2)处理烟草株高提高了5.39 cm。相关性分析表明烟草干重和株高呈极显著相关关系,烟叶各部位Cd含量与烟草株高、各部位烟叶干重呈负相关关系。(5)各部位烟叶化学成分指标与烟叶金属含量表明烟叶中K含量、总糖含量、还原糖含量与烟叶中Cd含量呈负相关关系。通过模糊数学法对烟草化学品质进行评价,结果表明,在Cd-Pb污染条件下,N1P2K1和高氮磷钾(N2P2K2)处理下烟叶品质提高最明显;在Cd污染条件下,高氮磷(N2P2K1)、N1P2K2、N2P2K2下,上部叶和下部叶烟叶质量得分值高于N1P1K1处理。本研究认为不同土壤化学性质下烟叶各部位重金属含量及烟叶品质差异明显,通过调节NPK肥配比可以降低烟草对Cd的吸收,提高烟草品质。在Cd-Pb复合污染条件下N1P2K1处理和N2P2K2处理可以降低烟叶Cd含量,进而提高烟叶生物量和烟叶品质,在Cd单一污染条件下N1P2K2,N2P2K2处理可以降低烟叶Cd含量,进而提高烟叶生物量和烟叶品质。这不仅为四川主要烟田烟草体内重金属含量提供背景参考,也为烟草实际生产中通过调节NPK肥配比来提高烟叶品质提供了理论依据。 
Other AbstractTobacco is a major cash crop in China, and it is also a cop the hyper-accumulating heavy metals. Excessive heavy metals can damage the structures of proteins, nucleic acids and cell membranes, impede the cells metabolism and tobacco growth. Soils are the main source of heavy metals in tobacco. The physical and chemical properties of soil have a significant impact on the bio-availability of heavy metals, which affects the absorption of heavy metals by tobacco. However, most of researchers focused on the content and distribution of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in tobacco leaves and the effect of heavy metals on the quality of tobacco leaves. Systematic study of the distribution of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Mn) in tobacco and the correlation between soil properties and heavy metals in tobacco leaves are still limited.Four tobacco fields (Pingdi, Puan, Gulin, Xingwen) were selected as the filed study areas. In total 140 tobacco samples and 20 soil samples were collected to investigated the different distribution of Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni and Mn , The Stepwise regression analysis was used to establish a prediction model of Cd in tobacco. Moreover, a pot experiment was carried out to study the difference heavy metal absorption in the tobacco under the different ratios of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium treatments. Fuzzy membership function was used to evaluate the tobacco quality differences. The main results and conclusions are as followed:Compared with the other tobacco filed in China, the concentration of six heavy metals in Pingdi, Puan, Gulin are low, the concentration of cadmium and nickel in Xingwen filed is high, the concentration of lead,manganese,mercury in Xingwen filed is in the range of other tobacco filed. The distribution of Cd in different organs of tobacco was leaf> stem> root. The sequence of cadmium concentration in different parts of leaf was lower leaf> middle leaf> upper leaf. The sequence of cadmium concentration in different parts of stem was upper stem> middle stem> lower stem. The distribution of Pb、Cr、Ni and Mn in different organs of tobacco was leaf> stem> root. The bio-concentration factor、translocation factor and bio-accumulation factor of Cd is 1.14~1.90, 2.51~4.02, 5.96~20.72 respectively, much higher than other heavy metals.(2) Pearson correlation analysis indicated that the sequence of the concentration of heavy metal in different organic of tobacco affected by soil chemical properties was root>leaf>stem. The correlation between soil chemical properties and the concentration of Cd-Pb in tobacco leaf is much significant than other heavy metals. There were significant differences in the fitting coefficients of soil chemical properties to the contents of heavy metals in tobacco leaves. The fitting coefficients of Cd in tobacco leaves could reach above 0.93, but the fitting coefficients of other heavy metals such as Cr and Ni were only 0.6. the prediction model of Cd in the different part of tobacco leaf is as followed:Yupper leaf=-45.07-9.32*XTK-3.86*XpH-0.11*XCr+0.3*XNi-27*XTN;Ymiddle leaf=59.65-12.9*XTK+0.09*XAN-4.60*XpH-0.15*XCr+0.29*Ni-64.23*XTN;Ylower leaf=-10.38+0.02*XAN+1.32*XpH-0.08*XPb+0.11*XNiThe concentration of Cd and available Cd in Cd and Pb pollution soil higher than those in Cd pollution soil. Compared with the N1P1K1 treatment, the Cd concentration in three parts of tobacco leaf were significantly decreased under N1P2K2 treatment in Cd pollution soil, and it decreased under N1P2K1 treatment in Cd and Pb pollution soil. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that the relationship between the concentration of cd in tobacco leaf and the concentration of Cd and available Cd in soil was negative. The fitting coefficient of the concentration Cd in upper leaf to the content of Cd and available Cd in soil is higher than it in middle leaf and upper leaf.Under Cd and Pb pollution, Compared with N1P1K1 treatment, N1P2K1 treatment significantly improved the tobacco dry weight , reaching 40.40 g, and the N2P1K1 treatment improved the tobacco height by 9.72 cm. Under Cd pollution, compared with N1P1K1 treatment, N1P2K2 treatment improved the tobacco dry weight to 40.33 g, and the N2P1K2 treatment significantly increased tobacco height by 5.39 cm. The relationship between dry weight and height was significantly positive. The relationship between the concentration of Cd in tobacco leaf and tobacco height was negative.(5) The relationship between the content of potassium、nicotine、total sugar 、reducing sugar and tobacco Cd was negative, but the relationship between content of total nitrogen and tobacco Cd was positive.The fuzzy membership function indicated that N1P2K1 and N2P2K2 treatment improved tobacco quality significantly under Cd and Pb pollution, N2P2K1、N1P2K2 and N2P2K2 treatments increased tobacco quality under Cd pollution.This study was focus on the distribution of six heavy metals in tobacco and the relationship between soil chemical properties and tobacco heavy metal content, investigated the difference of concentration of six heavy metals in tobacco among four study tobacco areas, discussed the effect of soil chemical properties to the content of heavy metals and chemical quality index in tobacco, simulated the effect of different ratio of nitrogen、phosphorus and potassium on tobacco absorption of heavy metals. The result of this study could provide some reference data on background value for tobacco heavy metal in Sichuan Province. 
Pages78
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24757
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨蒙岭. 土壤化学性质对烟草吸收六种金属元素和烟叶品质的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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