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岩质滑坡动力过程数值模拟研究与探讨 —以苏村和新磨村滑坡为例
Alternative TitleResearch and discussion about the numerical simulation of dynamic process of rockslide —Cases Study of Su village rockslide and Xinmo village rcokslide
赵伟
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor欧阳朝军
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline岩土工程
Keyword岩质滑坡 刮铲侵蚀效应 数值模拟 动力过程 连续介质力学(Massflow)
Abstract岩质滑坡是滑坡的一种重要类型,在我国西南地区分布广泛。岩质滑坡常常发生在偏远的山区,具有很强的突发性、强大的冲击力、高速远程和刮铲效应明显等特性,岩质滑坡的发生往往造成大量的人员伤亡和财产损失,还可能有形成堰塞湖、溃坝洪水等二次灾害的风险。因此系统地开展岩质滑坡的形成条件、启动机制、运动学特征以及堆积规律的研究极为迫切。近年来,随着计算机技术的快速发展,数值模拟方法被逐渐应用到滑坡领域的研究之中。本文以浙江丽水苏村滑坡、四川茂县新磨村滑坡作为典型案列,在野外实地调查、遥感影像分析的基础上,结合连续介质力学方法(Massflow)和离散元法(EDEM)两种数值模拟对两个岩质滑坡进行了反演分析,并以此对其运动全过程以及力学特征进行了研究,主要工作和成果有:(1)从滑坡特征分析来看,两个滑坡都是典型的岩质滑坡,存在许多相似的地方,主要表现在滑坡失稳启动后,滑坡体的整个下滑堆积过程具有较大的相似性。其整个动力过程中都存在失稳启动,加速下滑,减速堆积的过程,在整个下滑过程中,岩石解体破碎现象严重,地表刮铲侵蚀现象明显,体积放大现象明显,滑坡运动系数H/L(0.46和0.42)也较为接近,破坏力强,直接掩埋滑坡下方的村庄和公路,堵塞河道形成堰塞湖;但两个滑坡也存在许多不同之处,主要体现在两个滑坡的成因上。苏村滑坡的形成主因主要是降雨,由于降雨导致雨水入渗到岩土体内部,进而导致滑坡体内部抗剪强度逐渐降低、自重逐渐增加,因而最终引发滑动,而新磨村滑坡主要是因为强震之后,造成该区域的山体内部岩体破碎严重,继而在在重力的作用下失稳而后高位剪出。(2)从数值模拟结果来看,不论是基于深度平均的连续介质力学方法(Massflow)还是离散单元法(EDEM)都取得了比较好的模拟结果。苏村滑坡有较详尽的数据来验证对比高程、剖面等,数值模拟结果可以与调查结果进行多角度对比。从数值模拟的角度来看,整个滑坡过程可以分为三个阶段失稳阶段、加速滑动阶段和减速堆积阶段。运动过程中最大速度一般可达40-55m/s,该范围内的速度足以使房屋等建筑破坏。从计算成果对比分析来看,黏聚力和土压力对滑坡的模拟影响较大,侵蚀作用对堆积形态的影响不大,但对最终体积的影响较大。苏村滑坡有详细的地质勘测资料和钻孔数据,对于确定滑坡基岩层和滑动面有较大的帮助,也为数值模拟的验证提供充分的数据支持。(3)从两个滑坡的H/L的值和强大冲击作用来看,此类高位岩质滑坡应具有较高的速度,高势能是造成其速度较高的主要原因,但是高势能并不一定能导致其远程,远程还需要有利的地形条件。(4)通过数值模拟的分析研究结果可以发现连续介质力学方法和离散单元对于滑坡模拟都具有一定的适用性,但是每种方法各有自己的优缺点。就目前来讲,两种方法都可以为灾害分区和危险性评估提供相应的理论依据和技术支持。
Other AbstractRockslide is an important type of landslide, which is widely distributed in southwest China. Rockslides often occur in remote mountain areas, which have very sudden, strong impact force, rapid and long runout and scraping effect. Rockslide often caused heavy casualties and property losses, may also form the dam barrier, produce the risk of secondary disasters such as dam lake, debris flow. Therefore, it is very urgent to systematically study the formation conditions, start-up mechanism, kinematics characteristics and accumulation rules of rockslide. In recent years, with the rapid development of computer technology, numerical simulation method has been gradually applied in the landslide field.This paper takes Su village, Xinmo village landslide as the typical cases, on the basis of field investigation and remote sensing image analysis in the wild, combined with the continuum mechanics(Massflow) and the distinct element method(EDEM) of inversion for two landslides, and the whole movement process and mechanics characteristics are studied, the main work and achievements are as follows:(1) from the analysis of characteristics of landslides, both landslide is a typical rocky landslide, there are many similar places, mainly displays in the landslide instability starts, landslide has great similarity in the accumulation process.Its entire power there is in the process of instability starts, accelerated decline, slow down the process of accumulation, in the whole process of decline, broken rock disintegration phenomenon is serious, the earth's surface scaling erosion phenomenon is obvious, volume amplification phenomenon is obvious, coefficient of landslide movement H/L (0.46 and 0.42) is also relatively close, destructive, directly buried landslide at the bottom of the villages and roads, blocked rivers formed the lake;But two landslides also exist many differences, mainly embody in two the cause of the landslide.Sue village landslide formation reason mainly rain, rain due to rainfall infiltration into the rock mass, the internal shear strength decreases, resulting in landslide weight increase gradually, thus eventually trigger a slide, and the new mill village landslide mainly because after the earthquake, causing the area inside the mountain rock broken seriously, and then in under the action of gravity, instability and high cut out.(2) from the results of numerical simulation, whether it is based on the average depth of continuum mechanics method (Massflow) or discrete element method (EDEM) has achieved a better simulation result.Sue village landslide has the detailed data to verify the contrast elevation, section and so on, the results of numerical simulation can be multi-angle compared with the results of the survey.From the point of view of numerical simulation, the entire process of landslide can be divided into three stages of instability, accelerate sliding stage and slow accumulation phase.Maximum speed possible in the movement process can generally be 40 to 55 m/s, the speed to make houses within the scope of construction.From the point of calculation results contrast analysis, cohesion and soil pressure had a greater influence on the simulation of landslide, erosion accumulation form impact is not big, but bigger influence on the final volume.Sue village landslide has detailed geological survey data and drilling data, to determine the sliding surface and rock layer is rather help, also provide sufficient data for the validation of numerical simulation of support.(3) from two landslides of H/L value and strong impact, such high rocky landslide should have high speed, high potential energy is the main cause of the high speed, but high potential energy is not necessarily can lead to a remote, remote need favorable terrain conditions. (4) According the analysis and research results of numerical simulation, it is found that the continuous medium mechanics method and the discrete element have certain applicability for the landslide simulation, but each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. For now, the two methods can provide theoretical basis and technical support for disaster zoning and risk assessment. 
Pages120
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24760
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵伟. 岩质滑坡动力过程数值模拟研究与探讨 —以苏村和新磨村滑坡为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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