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喀斯特山区县域三生空间变化的人文驱动解析—以环江县为例
Alternative TitleHumanistic Driving Analysis of Spatial Changes of Living,Production and Ecology in Karst Mountain Counties
万将军
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor邓伟
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline人文地理学
Keyword喀斯特山区 环江县 三生空间 格局变化 人文驱动
Abstract“绿水青山就是金山银山”,这是习近平总书记对山和水的重要性最深刻的诠释,一语既道出了青山绿水的宝贵价值,也深刻明示保护好绿水青山是打造人与自然和谐共存的关键基础。我国是一个山地大国,相较于平原地区,山区人地关系更为复杂。在主体功能区划分中,大部分山区国土空间被划分为限制或是禁止开发区,凸显其生态功能地位的重要性。随着生态文明建设、建设美丽中国和“乡村振兴”等重大战略的部署,使得我国山区国土空间的协调发展成为重点。喀斯特山区是一种特殊的山地国土空间类型,系统识别其国土空间变化的人文驱动因素及作用机制,对于促进喀斯特山区的生态文明建设,防止其生态退化,指导喀斯特乃至全国山区的发展具有重要意义。本研究以喀斯特山区的环江县为研究对象,在地域多功能理论、人地关系理论等相关理论指导下,对环江县三生空间的类型进行划分,构建了其三生空间变化的人文驱动概念框架,从不同尺度对三生空间的变化过程、格局特征及其驱动机制进行研究。首先,在县域层面,基于GIS技术应用基础,结合土地利用变化分析模型,探索了县域三生空间变化的过程和现状特征;结合驱动框架,构建县域尺度三生空间变化的多元回归驱动模型,定量刻画和解析了县域三生空间变化的人文驱动因素。其次,分析了农户尺度下三生空间的变化和现状特征,通过构建评价满意度的结构方程模型,判别农户对目前三生空间的满意程度,重点剖析了不同生计类型农户土地利用方式差异与三生空间变化的关联性。最后,结合实地调研,采用Probit计量模型和与典型案例相结合的分析方法,解析了环江县三生空间变化的人文驱动因素,最后基于人文视角提出了环江县三生空间协调发展的相关建议。通过以上一系列研究,得出以下主要结论:(1)县域尺度上,环江县的三生空间从总体到不同乡镇、海拔、坡度的分布格局表现出明显的地域分异特征。总体上,环江县的三生空间分布特征表现为交错内嵌格局,其中绿被生态空间面积最大,为365566.8hm2;其次为农业生产空间,总面积为60545.05hm2,农业生产空间主要集中分布于大环江和小环江流域。城镇生活空间主要分布于思恩、洛阳、水源等乡镇,长美、大才、大安等乡镇的农业生产空间分布占比较高。水被生态空间、农业生产空间、城镇和乡村生活空间面积随着坡度的增加呈现依次递减的规律,而绿被生态空间则呈现依次递增的趋势。海拔500米以下的三生空间分布类型占比较均匀,说明环江县的国土空间利用主要集中在海拔较低的谷地之中。(2)从1990年到2015年25年间,环江县的三生空间变化态势明显,近十多年变化比2000年前的变化更为剧烈。其中农业生产空间和水被生态空间面积总体上以减少为主要趋势,绿被生态空间、工矿业生产空间、城镇和乡村生活空间面积都呈增长态势。在单一动态度值变化上,农业生产空间由1990~2000年的0.35增加到了2000~2015年的0.55,城镇生活空间由1.96迅猛增长到2.36,工矿业生产空间表现出先减后增的变化趋势,乡村生活空间的增长速度显著放缓。分乡镇进行三生空间动态度测算,发现思恩镇、洛阳镇、东兴镇、川山镇的动态度值比其他乡镇值高,均大于1.5以上,说明这几个乡镇近25年来国土空间开发强度较大。通过转移矩阵模型分析三生空间的转移方向,发现主要集中在农业生产空间、绿被生态空间和水被生态空间。(3)农户尺度上三生空间的变化态势明显,现有三生空间分布格局在不同乡镇、地理位置、坡度、移民与非移民之间表现出明显的异质性特征。农户所占用的农业生产空间比重在不断减少,居住生活空间和绿被生态空间面积呈显著增长趋势。乡镇尺度上,思恩镇的农户占用的生活空间面积最大,明伦镇和川山镇农户占用的农业生产空间最多,龙岩乡和东兴镇农户占用的绿被生态空间面积明显比其他乡镇大。从地貌类型看,峰丛谷地农户其生产空间的比重明显高于其他类型地貌农户。伴随坡度增大,生产空间的分布面积总体呈下降趋势,生态空间的分布面积总体呈现上升趋势。总体上,移民所占用的生产空间和居住生活空间占比要小于非移民农户。(4)环江县农户对于三生空间现状总体较为满意,不同生计类型农户耕地资源禀赋和土地利用方式不相同,对三生空间带来的影响差异显著。从不同的空间满意度分析,生产、生活、生态空间的满意度得分分别为2.881、3.468和3.351。其中房屋舒适、生活用水和垃圾污水处理显著影响农户对生活空间满意度;灌溉用水、耕地数量和耕地肥力是显著影响农户对生产空间满意度;环境卫生、植被覆盖、洪涝内涝情况显著影响农户对生态空间的满意度。种植作物的差异结果显示,纯农型农户三种作物的比例趋于平衡,农为主型农户主要以经果林类作物为主,而非农为主型主要以粮食作物和纯经济作物为主。地块越近,农户种植作物越倾向于多元化;地块越远,越偏向种植经果林作物、退耕或撂荒。农户种植地块的石漠化特征呈现出显著分异性,纯农型和农为主型农户种植的地块整体上质量偏好,这两类农户所占用的无石漠化地块比例较高。(5)环江县的三生空间变化是政策、经济发展、人口变化、文化传统等因素共同驱动的结果。1政策对于三生空间的影响是带有强制性效果的,例如退耕还林、自然保护区划定等政策都不同程度作用于三生空间的变化。农户对退耕还林政策满意度越高,退耕还林积极性就越高,越有利于退耕还林政策的实施。自然保护区划定后,原则上会将自然保护区内农户通过生态补偿进行迁出,促使了原有耕作或居住用地自然恢复并逐渐转变为生态空间。2人口增长、劳动力转移、移民对三生空间的变化产生重要影响,其中人口增长相应地带来住房需求的增加。劳动力转移导致农村空心化的趋势也越来越明显,撂荒地或是退耕还林地增多,促进了土地的自然生态修复。劳动力转移能够推动农村土地流转,促进土地高效利用。生态移民直接改变了土地利用形式和地表景观类型,移民迁出地的房屋80%以上荒废搁置,原有耕地撂荒、退耕的农户占绝大多数。移民对于迁入地而言,会显著推动迁入地的房屋、道路等基础设施建设,生活空间面积增加。3经济发展水平能够提高三生空间开发利用的强度,能够为三生空间的变化提供最基本的物质条件基础,也能促进产业结构变化,借此推动三生空间结构的改变。贫困户更倾向于传统农业生产方式,倾向于土地的高强度利用,小康型农户更加倾向于土地的保护性利用。产业结构的变动间接导致了农户兼业经济行为的发生。农村种植结构的变化,尤其是经果林的种植,促使原有耕地转变为林果地,有利于防止水土流失,土地的生态功能得到恢复。4区域的文化传统、生活方式等是决定不同国土空间开发利用强度和方式的深层次因素。结果显示,民族认同强、参与民族交流互动多的农户,选择就业方式、种植行为等都会有一定的趋同性,因而其土地利用行为存在趋同现象。生活方式上能源利用的变化,能够促进原有破坏生态环境为代价的能源利用形式转变为更加清洁、环境污染少的能源利用形式。(6)结合环江县的生态建设背景和人文驱动因素的解析结果,文章提出了环江县三生空间协调发展的目标:要构建安全的三生空间、构建和谐的城乡生活空间、构建可持续的“生态-生产”空间。并从发展经济、人口调控、文化传统保护传承、政策完善四个方面详细提出了对环江三生空间协调发展的对策建议。
Other Abstract“Lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets.” This is the most profound interpretation of the Chairman of Xi Jinping on mountains and water. It is a word that shows both the precious value of green mountains and green water and the profound protection of green mountains and green hills is the key foundation for the harmonious coexistence between man and nature. China is a big mountains country. Compared with the plains, the man-land relationship in the mountains land space is more complicated. In the division of the main functional areas, most of the land space in the mountainous area is classified as the development area of restricted or prohibited development areas, highlighting the importance of its ecological function status. With the deployment of ecological civilization, the construction of beautiful China, and the rejuvenation of rural areas, the optimization and protection of land space in mountainous regions has become an important development direction. The karst mountainous region is a special type of mountain land space. To identify the humanistic driving factors and its mechanisms of the spatial changes in the land, can construct the ecological civilization in the karst mountainous areas and prevent their ecological degradation. It is of great significance in guiding the development of mountainous regions in karst and even in the whole country.This study takes Huanjiang County where in the Karst Mountainous Area as its research object. Under the guidance of relevant theories such as regional multi-functional theory, man-land relationship theory and combine the spatial characteristics of the karst region, we divided the land space in different categories from the living, production and ecology perspective. A human-driven conceptual framework of land spatial variation is constructed, and the change process, pattern characteristics, and driving mechanisms of land space are studied from different scales. First of all, at the county level, based on the application of GIS technology, combined with land use change analysis model, we explored the changes of process and current status of of the living, production and ecology land space. Combined with the driving framework, constructing a multivariate regression driven model of county-scale, it was used to analyze the human drivers of the spatial changes of the land space. Secondly, from the household level, it analyzes the changes and the status quo characteristics of of the land space, constructs a structural equation model for evaluating the degree of farmers’ satisfaction to the land space, and analyzes the relationship between the land space change and the differences in land-use patterns of farm households with different types of livelihoods. Finally, based on field research, the Probit econometric model and the analysis method combined with typical cases are used to analyze the humanistic driving path of the land space change in Huanjiang County. Based on the analysis results and the actual ecological background, relevant suggestions for optimization of land space in Huanjiang County were proposed from the perspective of humanistic optimization. Through the above series of studies, the following main conclusions have been drawn: (1) On the county scale, the distribution pattern of the living, production and ecology space in Huanjiang County from the whole area to different townships, elevations, and slopes shows obvious regional differentiation characteristics. In general, the living, production and ecology distribution of Huanjiang County is characterized by a staggered inlay pattern. The dominant land space type is the green ecological space, with a total area of 365566.8hm2, followed by agricultural production space with a total area of 60545.05hm2. The production space is mainly concentrated in the Dahuan River and Xiaohuan River basins. The urban living space is mainly distributed in townships such as Sien, Luoyang, Shuiyuan, Dongxing, and Xunle. The spatial distribution of agricultural production in Changmei, Dacai, Da'an, Minglun is relatively high. The distribution of urban living space, rural living space, water ecological space, and agricultural production space shows a decreasing trend with the increase of slope, while the green ecological space shows an increasing trend. The living, production and ecological space distribution pattern below the altitude of 500 meters accounts for more uniform distribution, indicating that the use of the country's land space in Huanjiang County is mainly concentrated in valleys with lower altitudes.(2) From 1990 to 2015, the living, production and space change in Huanjiang County was obvious. The change in the past ten years was more dramatic than that before 2000. The area of agricultural production space and water ecological space was generally reduced as a major trend, and the green space, urban living space, rural living space, and industrial and mining production space area all showed an increasing trend. In the change of single dynamic degree value, the agricultural production space increased from 0.35 in 1990-2000 to 0.55 in 2000-2015, and the urban living space increased rapidly from 1.96 to 2.36. The industrial and mining production space showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing. The growth rate of rural living space has slowed down significantly. Calculating the dynamics degree value by different towns, we find that the dynamic values of Sien Town, Luoyang Town, Dongxing Town, and Chuanshan Town are higher than those of other towns and are all greater than 1.5, indicating that these towns have developed land space fiercely in the last 25 years. Through the transfer matrix model to analyze the transfer direction of the land space, it is concluded that the main focus of the land space type transfer is in the agricultural production space, the green and ecological space, and the water ecological space.(3) In rural household level, the change of the living, production and ecology space is obvious. The existing land space distribution pattern shows obvious heterogeneity among different townships, geographical locations, slopes, and immigrants and non-immigrants. The proportion of agricultural production space occupied by rural households is continuously decreasing, and the area of living and green ecology space has shown a significant growth trend. The average living space area per rutal household has increased from 153.44 m2 to 195.17 m2 before the change, and the year of change has been mainly concentrated after 2000. On the township scale, rural households in Sien Town occupy the largest area of living space. Rural households in Minglun Town and Chuanshan Town occupy the largest amount of agricultural production space. The ecological space occupied by rural households in Longyan Town and Dongxing Town is significantly larger than other townships. From the aspect of landform type, the proportion of production space of rural households in Peak Cluster Valley is obviously higher than that of other types of landform. With the increase of slope, the distribution area of production space has generally declined, and the distribution area of ecological space has generally shown an upward trend. In general, the proportion of production space and living space occupied by immigrants is smaller than that of non-immigrant rural households.(4) The rural households in Huanjiang County are generally satisfied with the status quo of the land space. The rural households with different types of livelihoods have different arable land resources and land use patterns, which have significant differences in the impact on the living, production and ecology space. From the different spatial satisfaction analysis, the satisfaction scores of production, living and ecology space were 2.881, 3.468, and 3.351, respectively. In terms of specific impact factors, housing comfort, domestic water and waste water treatment have the greatest impact on farmers' living space satisfaction; irrigation water, farmland quantity, and farmland fertility are the three primary factors that affect the farmer's production space satisfaction; the environmental conditions, vegetation cover, floods and waterlogging played an important role in the satisfaction of farmers' ecological space. The differences in the results of planting crops show that the ratio of the three types of crops for purely rural households tends to be balanced. The main agricultural households are dominated by fruit trees, while the non-farm households mainly use grain crops and pure economic crops. The closer the plot is, the more diversified the farmers tend to grow crops; the farther the plot is, the more likely it is to plant a fruit crop, or to return farmland to forest or abandon farming. The rock desertification characteristics of the rural households’ plots show a significant disparity, and the quality of the plots planted by purely farm households and farm-based households as a whole is better. The proportion of non-rocky desertification plots occupied by these two types of rural households is relatively high.(5) The living, production and ecology space change in Huanjiang County is the result of common drive of policies and regulations, economic development, population changes, and cultural traditions, but the driving directions and forces are different. 1 The impact of policies and regulations on land space is a mandatory one. For example, policies of returning farmland to forests, agricultural subsidies, industrial mining, and planning of major functional areas all play a role in the change of the land space. The farmers' satisfaction with the policy of returning farmland to forests will be more supportive of the policy of returning farmland to forests, and the higher the enthusiasm for returning farmland to forests, the more favorable it is to implement the policy of returning farmland to forests. After demarcating nature reserves, rural households in the nature reserve will, in principle, be moved out through ecological compensation, prompting the natural restoration of the original land, and the space for life and production where human activities have previously concentrated will naturally be transformed into an ecological space. 2 Population growth, labor migration, and immigration have important impacts on the changes in the living, production and ecology space, and the population growth correspondingly leads to an increase in housing demand. The trend of the hollowing out of rural areas caused by the transfer of labor force is becoming more and more obvious. More cultivated lands appear uncultivated, become abandoned lands or return farmland to forest lands, and promote the natural ecological restoration of land. Ecological immigration has directly changed the form of land use and the type of land surface landscape. More than 80% of the houses in the original place of immigration have been abandoned. Most of the original farmland has been abandoned, and the ecological environment in the exodus area will become better and better. For the place where immigrants move in, they will significantly promote the construction of infrastructure such as houses and roads, and their living space will increase. 3 The level of economic development can increase the intensity of the development and utilization of land space. It can provide the most basic material conditions for changes of the land space, and it can also promote changes in the industrial structure, thereby promoting the change in the spatial structure of the living, production and ecology. Poor rural households are more inclined to traditional agricultural production methods and tend to use land in high-intensity, and well-off farmers tend to be more protective of land use. Changes in the industrial structure often bring about changes in the land, which indirectly leads to the occurrence of concurrent rural household economic activities. The changes in the structure of planting in the countryside, especially through the cultivation of fruit trees, promoted the transformation of the original cultivated land into forest and fruit land , which will help prevent soil erosion and restore the ecological functions of the land. 4 Regional cultural traditions and lifestyles are in-depth factors that determine the intensity and mode of development and utilization of different land space. The results show that ethnic groups with strong ethnic identity, and the high participation in ethnic interaction, then their choice of employment methods, planting behaviors, etc. will all have certain convergence. And the same to its land use behavior. Changes in the use of energy in the way of life can promote the transformation of energy use forms at the cost of destroying the ecological environment into cleaner and less polluting forms of energy use. (6) In combination with the ecological construction background and humanistic driving path of Huanjiang County, the article proposes three major optimization goals in Huanjiang County: to build a safe land space, to build a harmonious urban-rural living space, and to build a sustainable “ecology- Production” space. And from the aspects of economic development, population control, inheritance of protection of cultural traditions, and promotion of policies and regulations, the countermeasures and suggestions on the optimization of Huanjiang land space are put forward in detail. 
Pages186
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24775
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
万将军. 喀斯特山区县域三生空间变化的人文驱动解析—以环江县为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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