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格子坝对粘性泥石流拦挡性能的实验研究
Alternative TitleExperimental study on characteristics of viscous debris flow performance with grid-type dam
袁东
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor柳金峰
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline建筑与土木工程
Keyword格子坝 粘性泥石流 拦挡性能 理论分析 水槽实验
Abstract格子坝属于格栅坝的一种,在风景区泥石流防护以及铁路、公路等线型工程泥石流防护中具有较好的防治效果。近年来,透过型拦砂坝在我国开始广泛应用,而格子坝在国外泥石流防治工程中早已得到较好的应用,特别是日本、台湾地区,其防治对象主要是水石流和泥流。目前,国内外对于格子坝拦挡粘性泥石流的研究较少,其调控粘性泥石流的拦挡机理尚未揭示,而我国西南山区典型的宽级配粘性泥石流分布较广,格子坝拦挡粘性泥石流的防治效果如何有待进一步研究。基于格子坝的应用前景,本文采用理论分析与室内模型实验结合的研究方法,选取了泥石流容重、格子坝开口间距和沟道坡度等主要影响因素,研究了格子坝拦挡粘性泥石流过流情况、闭塞淤积现象、闭塞条件、回淤形态和拦砂与调控性能,建立了反映其拦挡粘性泥石流的关键性能指标和关键参数的计算方法,为泥石流格子坝的设计提供理论依据和技术支持,初步得到以下结论:(1)格子坝拦挡粘性泥石流过程及现象:当水槽闸门打开时,泥石流突然涌出并加速运动,运动一定距离后撞击格子坝,细颗粒与泥石流浆体通过格子坝开口流入下游,粗颗粒被格子坝拦挡淤积,同时泥石流泥深陡增,并冲起一定高度,泥石流容重越低,冲起高度越大。被冲起的泥石流被分割成两部分,一部分直接进入下游,一部分回流淤积在坝上游,接着后续来流对已淤积体具有一定的冲刷作用,泥石流容重越低,冲刷作用越显著。(2)通过研究格子坝拦挡粘性泥石流的闭塞过程与闭塞条件,给出了格子坝闭塞条件的定性分析与闭塞度的定量计算经验公式。格子坝拦挡粘性泥石流存在3种闭塞类型,即全闭塞类型、半闭塞类型、未闭塞类型。实验结果表明, 当F≤0.99时,格子坝表现为全闭塞类型;当0.99
Other AbstractThe grid-type dam belongs to one of the lattice dam, which has good prevention and control performance in debris flow protection in a scenic area and debris flow protection along railways or highways. In recent year, the open-type dam is widely used in prevention projects of debris flow in China, and the grid-type dam has been applied in debris flow prevention and control engineering projects especially in Japan and Taiwan. But the main research objects are sediment-laden flow, water-rock debris flow, mudflow, there are few researches focusing on the grid-type dam blocking mountainous southwest typical wide grading viscous debris flow in China. The grid-type dam mechanism of controlling the viscous debris flow has not yet been revealed. The good performance of grid-type check dams is blocking the course and discharging fine particles, energy characteristics of dissipation effect, and interception of drift wood. It is of great significance for studying the grid-type check dam used for debris flow prevention engineering in the mountainous southwest area in China. In this paper, we combined the method of theoretical analysis and model experiments, to select the main influencing factors such as bulk density of debris flow, the grid size of the dam and the flume slope. In order to explore the characteristics of viscous debris flow discharging, blocking conditions of the grid-type dam, siltation morphology and trapping and regulating sediment of flume model experiments on viscous debris flow passing through grid-type dam is conducted in this thesis. The calculation methods for key parameters reflecting the interception of viscous debris flow were established to provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the dam design. The main conclusions are listed as followed. (1) The process and phenomenon of grid-type dam trapping viscous debris flow: when the floodgate opening in the sink, viscous debris flow suddenly gushed out and accelerated motion. After a certain distance, viscous debris flow hit against with the grid-type dam with fine particles and slurry through the dam, coarse particle deposited after the dam. After the blocking of dam, the depth of viscous debris flow raised and the incoming debris flow jumped due to the collision with the grid-type dam and the deposited layer. The lower the bulk density of the debris flow is, the higher the height of debris flow jump. The jumped debris flow was divided into the debris flow which got over the dam and the ones which returned back and deposited. The incoming debris flow rushed over the dam accompanying with the erosion of deposited layer. The lower the bulk density of debris flow is, the more significant the scouring effect is.(2) Through studying the blocking process and blocking condition of the trapping viscous debris flow with grid-type dam, the qualitative criterion of blocking performance of grid-type dam and the quantity empirical formula which considers multi-factors interaction is proposed. There are three kinds of blocked types of grid-type dam for viscous debris flow, which is total-blocked type, part-blocked type and opening type. Experimental results show that when F≤0.99, the type of blocking is total-blocked type; When 0.99
Pages112
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24785
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
袁东. 格子坝对粘性泥石流拦挡性能的实验研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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