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油橄榄引种开发区域变迁与现状及示范点研究
Alternative TitleRegional Changes, Status, Trends And Demonstration Research On Introduction And Development Of Olives
孙俊峰
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor苏春江
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline人文地理学
Keyword文化地理学 油橄榄 引种开发 区域变迁
Abstract论文研究了中国油橄榄引种开发区域变迁与现状,归纳了中国油橄榄引种开发的主要动力和阻力;比较了各主要种植区产业化和餐用开发科学研究态势,分析了各种植区的开发潜力;在此基础上以四川省种植区内的示范点,进行了适宜性分区、品种比较、育苗、栽培等研究;对油橄榄引种开发所伴随的文化传播及其特征也进行了探讨与展望。论文主要研究结论有:(1)中国油橄榄引种开发经历了较为明显的区域变迁,1964年以前的试验性引种地主要分布在长江流域的大城市,试验证明了油橄榄在中国能够正常生长;1964~1973年以广西为首的西南地区成为重点生产性引种区域,进行了苗木扦插、开花结实及病虫害防治的试验;1974~1980年油橄榄遍布中国南北方各省,油橄榄工作者开始形成其独立的使命与愿景;1981~1990年全国油橄榄种植数量下降,中西部省份则保留了一定的种植面积和苗木数量,甘肃陇南由于气候和土壤的高度适宜开始成为重点发展对象;1991~2000年除甘肃以外的其余各省进入发展低谷或衰退期,甘肃陇南则继续保持发展势头并获得国际组织的认可,开始制定油橄榄产品生产规范,同时适生区研究取得重大成果并指导实践;2001年之后,油橄榄引种开发高度集中在甘肃陇南地区,但四川、云南、陕西、重庆、湖北等省也在适生区划分理论成果的指导下开始恢复并大力发展油橄榄种植加工,油橄榄产业开始在中国西部地区的经济与社会发展中发挥作用。(2)从油橄榄引种开发区域变迁的驱动力来看,主要来自两方面:一是自上而下的决策、管理及科学研究;二是自下而上的区域间和区域内自发的交流及与之相伴随的文化传播与技术扩散。1964年引种决策的制定,既非出自于民间自发的技术扩散与文化交流,也缺乏来自正常国际贸易和商品进口的刺激,而是出于冷战时期希望扩大自力更生能力的理想和国家领导人之间的政治访问成果。因此,油橄榄在中国的引种开发历程始终伴随着相对强大的国家意志和发展目标,在引种初期就通过国家力量的参与迅速完成了跨区域的全面布局,再通过区域间自发的文化扩散与技术交流对这种布局进行了调整和修正,进而在改革开放国策及科学研究的支撑下通过对进口橄榄油产品的部分替代,最终取得了油橄榄引种开发本土化和中国化的成果。这一历程是当代中国努力实现现代化艰苦奋斗历程的一段缩影,在科研人员中形成了一种崇高的使命感文化,对这种文化的传播与继承在很大程度上淡化了油橄榄在其原产地的平民文化特征,成为了当代中国现代性主流文化的象征。(3)1964年之后的20余年中,国产油橄榄长期不能进入产业化开发阶段,其主要原因在于域外植物引种所需的社会动力较为缺乏,而面临的阻力却较为明显,因此油橄榄在各引入地的适应性虽然广泛,但产生的经济和社会效益却较为有限,以至于其潜在的价值很容易被忽视乃至被否定。通过国家政策和科学研究的引导,油橄榄引种开发逐渐由引种初期在广大南方地区的“全面”推广发展转向了在主要适生区内的“重点”集中发展并在进口橄榄油产品的刺激下最终在甘肃、四川、云南等省实现了产业化目标。截止2017年,全国2000余家油橄榄开发企业主要分布在甘肃、重庆、云南、四川、湖北5省,与油橄榄适生区的分布较为一致,反映了我国油橄榄产业集中在当地种植和加工的特点;大多数企业从事种植业务,从事橄榄油及相关产品经营的企业数量较少;企业规模普遍偏小,个人或家庭经营企业数量众多,跨区域的产业协作还有待形成;相关民营研究机构分布在主要种植区内,其非盈利性的职能主要集中在技术开发、技术推广、良种选育3个方面,在文化传播、行业自律等方面也有所涉及,但部分发展潜力较大的种植区还缺乏这类协作组织。(4)国内已形成甘肃兰州、甘肃陇南-四川广元、四川成都-绵阳、四川南充-重庆主城区、重庆东北、云南丽江-迪庆、云南楚雄、四川凉山、湖北十堰9个较为集中的油橄榄开发热点区域,油橄榄开发企业主要集中在上述9大区域内的陇南、十堰、绵阳、攀枝花和凉山、广元、达州、成都、丽江、迪庆、楚雄和重庆11地。陇南武都土地利用已接近其可开发极限;除陇南以外的各主要种植地按相对开发潜力(未开发面积/规划开发面积)排序为:凉山>绵阳>香格里拉>奉节>玉龙>利州>合川、永胜>十堰>金堂>文县>永仁;按绝对开发潜力(未开发土地面积)排序为:凉山>绵阳>奉节>玉龙>文县>武都>香格里拉>十堰>金堂>永仁>永胜>合川>利州>开江>青川>宕昌。(5)近5年来油橄榄的互联网用户关注度逐年上升,且互联网用户对橄榄油的关注度大大高于同一时期对油橄榄的关注度;对橄榄油的搜索请求大都来自于沿海省份特别是超大或特大城市,用户最为关心的是橄榄油的功效和作用,提示这些区域已经成为现实或潜在的橄榄油购买市场;对油橄榄的搜索请求主要源于一线城市及其周边地区以及西部的川、滇、渝、陇,其中陇南作为唯一的非特大城市位列前10名,反映了陇南作为中国最大的油橄榄产业基地,当地人对相关知识或信息的高度关注;成都互联网用户对橄榄油和油橄榄的关注度都位居前列,有望在未来的发展过程中成为油橄榄生产、消费和文化传播的重要引擎,并有望与西安等城市一起成为中西部主要的油橄榄及其相关产品的消费市场。(6)油橄榄餐用开发是实现其全值化利用的重要途径,但国内餐用油橄榄开发整体上仍然处于由推广种植研究向农产品深加工及其产业化开发研究的转型阶段,宏观经济和政策方面的讨论较多,微观层面的研究相对较少,在论文发表数量、被引频次、研究内容方面与国际主流还存在着不小的差距;未来有必要在继续保持同西班牙、意大利等地中海国家交流的基础上,加强与英、丹、比、美、德、日等非地中海国家在课题选择和研究方法与技术手段方面的交流,并在此基础上积极开展微观层面的社会-经济学研究,从而更高效的针对中国消费者需求特点进行产品创新,真正实现中国油橄榄油用餐用相结合的全面综合开发。(7)成都市金堂县境内油橄榄适宜区和次适宜区的土地面积较大,未来仍有较大的发展潜力。适宜区主要分布在龙泉山以东的浅丘地带,包含赵家、淮口、白果、福兴、三溪、高板、平桥、云合等乡镇,有望成为当地油橄榄推广种植和产业发展的主要力量;在龙泉山以西的清江、赵镇、三星也有次适宜区零星分布,但总面积小且受到城市建设发展的影响,未来种植面积增加的潜力不大;通过品比试验筛选出以阿贝基纳为主,混栽皮肖利、皮瓜尔、莱星、小苹果、佛奥等品种的混搭组合;橄榄园内家禽圈养模式较放养模式对座果率的提高有潜在的积极影响;牧草套种对获得较为稳定的座果率有一定帮助,刈割强度对当年座果率没有显著性影响,但对年度变化有较为明显的影响;牧草种植对当年最终产量的影响不显著,但也未对油橄榄生产带来明显不利的影响,且有望在增加农户收入的同时,改善当地生态环境。
Other AbstractThis thesis studied the regional changes and current situation of the introduction and development of olives (Olea europaea L.) in China, summarized the main motive force and resistance of the introduction and development, compared the industrialization trends of the major planting areas and the scientific research trend of table olives, and analysed the development potential of various planting areas. On this basis, the planting area of Chengdu, Sichuan province was studied as a demonstration. Some studies on suitability, variety comparison, seedling raising and cultivation were carried out, and the cultural transmission and its characteristics accompanied by the introduction and development of olive were also discussed and prospected. The main conclusions are as follows:(1)The planting area of olives in China has changed significantly. The experimental introduction sites before 1964 were distributed in the big cities of the Yangtze River Basin. In 1964~1973, a lot of experiments on cutting, flowering, seed setting and pest control were carried out in Southwest China, and the canned olive was produced. Olive trees were grown in many Southern and Northern provinces in 1974~1980. Olive researchers began to form their independent missions and visions while carrying out the production tests. During the adjustment period of 1981~1990, the number of olive trees in China decreased, but some seedlings were kept in the central and western provinces. With the implementation of the policy of reform and opening to the outside world and the beginning of the international exchanges and cooperations, researches on olive suitable area in China began to make progress. Longnan city, Gansu province began to establish its olive ochards. Despite Gansu province, the other provinces entered a trough or recession period in 1991~2000. Longnan continued to develop and its achievement was recognized by the IOC. Relying on the development results of Longnan, the production standard of olive products has been formulated, and the research results of suitable areas have begun to guide practice. After 2001, olives’ cultivation and industrializaion were concentrated in Longnan, Gansu province. At the same time, under the guidance of the theory of adaptation, Some other provinces such as Sichuan, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Chongqing and Hubei began to gradually restore and develop their olive industries, and the olive industry began to play an important role in the economic and social development of Western China.(2)China's introduction and development of olives, which has spanned more than half a century, is a process of collision and integration between Chinese and Western cultures on the background of Modernizations. It has completed the overall layout of the early introduction by the top-down management mechanisms, and through the complementarity between this mechanism and the spontaneous technological diffusions between the introduction regions, the difficulties of the lack of power and the greater resistances had been overcome. The development of olives in China shows the will and Modernity of the country. The cultural characteristics of the olive in the origin are desalinated and become a part of the mainstream culture in contemporary China.(3)In the more than 20 years after 1964, domestic olive could not enter the stage of industrial development for a long time. The main reason is the lack of social driving force required by foreign plant introduction, but the resistance is more obvious. Therefore, although olive was able to grow in the vast areas in China, the economic and social benefits were limited, and its potential value was easily ignored or even denied. Through the guidance of national policy and scientific research, the introduction and development of Olives gradually shifted from the early extensive development of the vast southern regions to the centralized development in the main living areas. Under the stimulation of imported olive oil products, China’s olive secter finally realized it’s industrialization in Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. By the end of 2017, More than 2000 olive companies were distributed in Gansu, Chongqing, Yunnan, Sichuan and Hubei; most enterprises are engaged in planting business, the number of enterprises engaged in olive oil and related products is less, and the scale of enterprises is generally small. There are a large number of individual or family enterprises, and the inter regional industrial cooperation has not been formed; A total of 28 private olive private-owned research institutions have registered in China until 2017. Most of them rely on local olive oil specialized companies or agricultural cooperatives. Their non-profit functions are mainly concentrated on 3 aspects, including technology development, technology extension and seed selection. They also involve in cultural transmission, industry self-discipline, membership rights protection and industry standard setting. The distribution of private research institutions is consistent with the development of olive industrialization, but there is a big gap between the provinces. Especially in Yongren and Yongshengm, Yunnan and other places with the greatest potential for development, there is a clear lack of such organizations in these two counties.(4)Nine centralized hot areas of olive development have been formed in China. They are (1) Lanzhou, Gansu; (2) Longnan, Gansu and Guangyuan Sichuan; (3) Chengdu and Mianyang, Sichuan; (4) Nanchong, Sichuan and Chongqing main City; (5) Northeast of Chongqing; (6) Lijiang and Diqing, Yunnan; (7) Chuxiong, Yunnan; (8) Liangshan, Sichuan; and (9) Shiyan, Hubei. In these 9 areas, Olive companies are concentrated in 11 places: Longnan, Shiyan, Mianyang, Panzhihua and Liangshan, Guangyuan, Dazhou, Chengdu, Lijiang, Chuxiong, Diqing and Chongqing. Wudu is very close to its development limit, and the increase in the area of future Olive Planting in Longnan will depend mainly on Wenxian. The other main planting areas except Longnan ranked according to the relative development potential are: Liangshan > Mianyang > Shangri-La > Fengjie > Yulong > Li Zhou > Hechuan/Yongsheng > Shiyan > Jintang > Wenxian > Yongren. The main planting areas ranked according to the absolute development potential are as fellows: Liangshan > Mianyang > Fengjie > Yulong> Wenxian > Wudu > Shangri-La > Shiyan > Jintang > Yongren > Yongsheng > Hechuan > lizhou > Kaijiang > Qingchuan > Dangchang. (5)The interests of olives is increasing, and the attentions to olive oil is much higher than that of olive trees at the same time. Most of the search requests for olive oil come from the super large or megacities in the coastal areas. The users are most concerned about the effect of olive oil, suggesting that these areas are expected to become the largest market of olive oil. The search requests for olive trees came mainly from the first tier cities and the western regions. Longnan, Gansu province is the only non megacity in the top 10 cities, which might reflect the high attention of the people in Longnan to related knowledge or information; Internet users in Chengdu city are in the forefront of olive oil and olive trees, and are expected to become one the main consumer market of olives and their related products in the central and western regions accmopnained by some other Western cities, such as Xian.(6)We found that when talked about table olives, there remains a considerable gap between the domestic and international mainstream studies in terms of the quantity of published articles, citation frequency, and research content. While maintaining communication with Mediterranean countries such as Spain and Italy, the researchers might need to strengthen their cooperation with non-Mediterranean countries such as the UK, Denmark, Belgium, the US, Germany, and Japan in terms of subject selection and research methods and technologies. In addition, Chinese investigators should carry out socioeconomic studies at the microcosmic level and take the initiative to innovate the products by cooperating with people in the same professions worldwide. This will allow them to tap the potential of Chinese consumers for table olives and to develop the Chinese olive industry for use of the oil, fruits, and leaves, while providing more comprehensive theoretical and technical support to transform the Chinese olive industry from one of traditional planting into a modern processing industry of farm produce.(7)Jintang County, Chengdu city has great potential for olive industry.It’s suitable areas are mainly distributed in the shallow hilly areas east of Longquan mountain, including the towns of Zhaojia, Huaikou, Baiguo, Fuxing, Sanxi, Gaoban, Pingqiao and Yunhe, and the towns of Qingjiang, Zhaozhen and Sanxing in the west of Longquan mountain also have some suitable areas, but their area is relatively small and influenced by the construction and development of the city and towns. The mix of varieties of Arbequina, Picholine, Picnal, Leecio, Manzanila, and Frantoio were selected out through the examinations in the demonstration point of Jintang county, Chengdu, Sichuan. In our conclusions, captive chicken in the olive orchard was proved to have the potential to positively impact on the percentage of fertile fruit than raising chicken in free range. Forage grass was seemed good for the stability of annual percentage of fertile fruit. However, mowing intensity has no significant influence on the rate of fruit, but has some influence on the annual change. The effect of forage planting on the olive fruit yield of the year was not significant. The experiment shows that interplanting and breeding have no obvious adverse effects on olive production, and it is expected to improve their comprehensive benefits, increase the income of plantation and improve the ecological environment. 
Pages195
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24787
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孙俊峰. 油橄榄引种开发区域变迁与现状及示范点研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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