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Study on changing rural livelihood strategy and their effects: a gender disaggregated analysis (a case study from Nepal)
Alternative Title尼泊尔农户生计策略变化及其效应:基于性别差异视角的研究
SHANTA PAUDEL KHATIWADA
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor邓伟
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline人文地理学
Keyword生计 性别 尼泊尔
Abstract尽管尼泊尔仍是农业社会,但是其农村居民家庭生计策略在近年已发生巨大变化。然而,在不同性别、种族和区域间,生计策略的变化却不尽一样。因此,对不断变化的生计策略和生计变化对农村贫富分化影响的差异性研究很有必要,且对尼泊尔的相关研究较少。所以,本研究旨在评估可持续生计分析框架内的生计策略和潜在的决定因素,并分析生计策略对于贫困、居民福祉和环境的影响。 本文的研究区域位于尼泊尔中部Gandaki河盆地的Chitwan Annapurna一带,研究区分为海拔200m以下的低地平原、500~1500m的中山区和2000m以上的高山区。研究采用分层随机抽样技术,选取样本村和农户家庭进行问卷访谈。总共收集到453户农户(约占3个样本村家庭户总数的11%)的样本数据,包括Bachhauli、Ghyalchok、Ghanapokhra地区的217、 133、103户农户,各地区的农户数由计算机随机产生。农户调研由训练有素的调查人员根据一份预先测试的调查问卷进行,调研结束之后相关人员还进行了几次非正式讨论,包括12次重点调查和3次关键的小组讨论。农户调查收集的数据包括家庭规模、技能培训、成员关系、劳动力转移、生计资产、收入活动、农业种植、牲畜喂养、资源利用、家庭收支和生计改变趋势与性别等相关数据。此外,在小组讨论和重点调查中还收集了村级的补充资料。 首先,本研究以农户收入为重点探讨目前的生计现状,及其对减贫的影响和农户生计策略影响因素。利用聚类分析将研究区农户生计策略分为五种,结果显示大多数农户家庭收入多元化,且以非农收入为主。生计的多元化有利于尼泊尔农村工商业和农业商业化的发展,并被认为是脱贫致富的最佳途径。影响农户采用高收入生计策略的影响因素主要包括农户持有的土地面积、教育、农技培训、信贷渠道和离主干道和市场的距离,所以加强农村教育和职业培训、拓宽农村信贷渠道、完善农村基础设施,鼓励贫困农户以市场为导向进行农业生产并增加非农收入,对于尼泊尔中部农村地区减贫至关重要(第四章)。 其次,本研究对比农户10年来收入变化,基于收入变化和性别分类,分析家庭内部为增加收入所发生的生计活动的变化、趋势及其决定因素。结果表明,近十年来,虽然男女双方的生计活动都从自给农业向非农就业和商品农业转变,但男性的转变程度较之女性更显著。男性主要外出务工,而女性则更多倾向于在商品农业和农村企业中就业。不考虑性别差异的话,影响农户从自给农业转向高收入非农就业的主要因素为个体及区域特征。有趣地是,在生计策略转变过程中,家庭种族因素只会影响女性。通过教育、技能培训,完善农村信贷体系并加强农户同主要市场甚至是全球市场的联系,构建人力资本和金融资本,将是促使农村劳动力从自给农业就业转向高收入非农就业的关键,并能减少尼泊尔农村贫困、缩小贫富差距(第五章)。 第三,本文评估了三种农业生态区域的农地使用强度(ALUI),并分析其基本影响因素。结果显示,在Khet地区低地、中山和高山区平均复种指数为2.9、2.6和1.6,而在Bari地区,复种指数分别为2.4、2.3和2.1。此外,Terai地区在中高山区域的ALUI要显著高于Khet和Bari地区。在影响因素上,家庭户主的年龄、教育程度、土地质量和改良品种的使用均有利于提高Khet地区的ALUI,而距离耕地和可通行道路的远近则会有负面影响。而在Bari地区,耕地质量、灌溉设施、机械化程度和改良品种的使用均与ALUI正相关,但家庭教育和距离耕地、市场、可通行道路的远近则与ALUI负相关。因此,本研究为农业现代化和便利的基础设施是促进农业集约化的主要途径提供了实证依据。通过对农民的教育、培训,增强农民对农业系统下保持土壤肥力的重要性的认知,可以有效促进尼泊尔可持续农业的发展(第六章)。 第四,研究还评价了农业土地利用和农村居民生计的现状与变化,并测算了三种农业生态区农户生计转变趋势对土地利用变化的影响。结果表明:Terai低地地区和高山乡村地区的农户只是利用农业耕地生产家庭口粮,而在中山乡村地区,大多数农户利用耕地生产商品粮和出售的经济作物。相较于其他两个地区,中山乡村地区绝大部分农户将农地转变为以市场为导向的商品化农业生产。分析结果进一步表明,以市场为导向进行商品化农业生产的农户比自给农业农户在收入、支出、粮食自给、家庭资产、牲畜等主要生计指标上更具优势。对生计转型的分析表明,虽然总体上收支在增加,而粮食自给率却在下降。具体来看,大多数以谷物和以市场为导向进行农业生产的家庭在收入上呈上升趋势,但相比起10年前,其粮食自给率下降趋势却有所增加。此外,研究还注意到农用地利用强度对家庭收支、粮食自给率的影响具有空间差异性。与具有相似自然条件的区域相比,具有以市场为导向的土地利用模式的区域对农村脱贫的促进作用更大。因此,未来的农业土地利用政策应以农业生态价值特有的高价值经济作物为生产重点,增强尼泊尔农村农业用地的可持续性,并提高农户生计能力(第七章)。 第五,本研究基于性别、种族、农业生态和家庭生计策略,观测家庭福祉的不同状况并分析其影响因素,计算并比较不同社会经济群体间的家庭福祉指数。结果表明,农户的健康状况因不同的农业生态区位、户主性别、户主民族关系和目前家庭生计策略而异。此外,与人、社会、自然、基础设施、财务能力和区位特征有关的各种影响因素对家庭福祉的影响也不尽相同。因此,提高生计能力应该着重在于向农村地区提供针对性的教育,鼓励乡村贫困人口更多地从事农村商业性经营,扩大非农收入。同时加强农村地区的基础设施建设,尤其是中高山地区的农村道路和交易市场,以提高居民福祉并促进共同富裕(第八章)。 最后,根据目前可持续农业的实践,本文评估了当下生计活动对环境的影响。为此,本研究对农户所采用的可持续农业生产方式进行了测算和评估,并通过描述性统计和广义线性回归模型分析影响农户采用可持续农业生产的影响因素。实证分析结果显示,研究区内农户采用了12种可持续农业耕作方式,并受到案例村庄的农业生态区位、户主性别、家庭生计策略差异的影响。回归模型结果表明,与家庭相关的各种因素,包括社会制度、资源禀赋、金融、地理位置、农业生态区位特征均对可持续农业的利用程度具有显著影响。因此,农业发展政策应该强调土地管理的培训,通过社区团体或组织,增强农村居民对信息获取和感知的能力,并能付诸于一定的计划。同时激励外出劳动力回归农业生产,提高女性参与农业就业的比例,从而促进尼泊尔的可持续农业发展(第九章)。第十章对研究结果和未来研究领域对政策建议进行总结,并归纳相关结论。
Other AbstractDespite primarily being agrarian society, the livelihood strategy of rural households in Nepal is rapidly changing. However, the change in livelihood strategies and outcomes is uneven based on gender, ethnicity and geographical region. Hence, there is a need for disaggregated study on changing livelihood and their outcome for equitable improvement in rural livelihoods in Nepal. However, the changing livelihood strategies and their differential outcome has been poorly acknowledged in Nepal. Therefore, the aim of this dissertation is to assess the changing livelihood strategies, their underlying determinants and poverty, wellbeing and environmental impacts within sustainable livelihood analysis framework.This study is carried out along the elevation gradient ranging from low-elevation below 200masl, mid-elevation 350-1400masl and high-elevation above 2000masl in the Chitwan Annapurna Landscape in Gandaki River Basin in central Nepal. Multistage random and purposive sampling techniques were applied to select the sample VDCs and households for questionnaire survey. A total of 453 households (about 11% of the total households in three VDCs) comprising 217 households from Bachhauli, 133 from Ghyalchok and 103 from Ghanapokhra were selected for the household survey from computer generated random numbers. A pretested set of questionnaire was used to collect the household information by well-trained investigators. The household survey was followed by several informal discussion, 12 Key-informants surveys and three focus group discussions. The household survey collected detail information on household demography, training, membership, out-migration, livelihood assets, income activities, agricultural production, livestock, resource use, income and expenditure, changing on livelihood trend and gender related information. Group discussion and key informant survey collected supplementary information on village level.At first, focusing on income activities, this study examines livelihood strategies currently adopted by rural households, their implication for poverty reduction and factors that influence household’s choice of strategies in rural Nepal. Five major livelihood strategies are identified in the study areas from cluster analysis. The result showed that majority of the households diversified their income to non-farm sources. Livelihood diversification to business/enterprise and commercial farming strategies are the most remunerative strategy and are identified as the most relevant strategy for poverty reduction. Land holding, education, agriculture and skill training, access to credit, proximity to road and market center are the major influencing factors on the adoption of higher returning livelihood strategies. Stimulating poor households to follow market-oriented farm and non-farm activities by improving access to education, vocational training, rural credit and rural infrastructures is momentous to reduce poverty in the rural areas of central Nepal (Chapter 4).Secondly, based on changing income activities compared to before 10 years, this study presents a gender disaggregated analysis to assess changing livelihood activities, trend and determinants for switching to higher returning activities at intra-household level. The result showed that both men and women have changed their livelihood activities from subsistence farming to cash-earning activities in last decade. However, livelihood activities of men has changed greatly compared to women. Men are primarily attracted to out-migration and non-farm wage based jobs whereas women to market-oriented commercial farming and rural enterprises. Individual as well as location-specific characteristics influences the behavior to switch from subsistence farming to the higher returning activities irrespective of gender. Interestingly, ethnicity of household influences only women to switch to more profitable activities. Building human and financial capital through education, income-generating training to men and women along with strengthening access to credit and increasing their connectivity with regional and global market through rural road and market centers would be pivotal for encouraging rural men and women to change their traditional subsistence farming activities to higher returning, and lead to poverty reduction and equitable livelihood improvement in rural Nepal (Chapter 5).Thirdly, it investigates on the cropping frequency, as an indicator of agricultural land use intensity (ALUI), in three agroecological regions and assessed the underlying determinants. The results showed that average cropping frequency in Khet land is 2.9, 2.6 and 1.6 in low-land Terai, mid-hill and high-hill area respectively while in Bari land is 2.4, 2.3 and 2.1 respectively. In addition, Terai region has significantly higher ALUI in both Khet and Bari lands than mid- and high-hill areas. Age and education of household heads, land quality and use of improved seed positively influence ALUI in Khet land, while distances from home to land and vehicle passable roads have negative effects. For the Bari lands, land quality, irrigation facility, tractor availability and improved seeds are positively associated with ALUI, but education of household heads, distances from home to land, home to market center and home to vehicle passable road are negatively influencing factors. Hence, this study provides an empirical evidence that agricultural modernization and access to infrastructural facilities are the major pathways to promote agriculture intensification. Dissemination of education, training and awareness programs about the importance of maintaining soil fertility under intensified farming system can be effective to achieve sustainable agricultural development in Nepal (Chapter 6).Fourthly, it assessed the status and changes in agricultural land use system, explored the current status and change in rural livelihood and measured livelihood transition trend as an impacts of changing land use pattern in the three agroecological regions. The result showed that majority of the households in Inner-terai and High-hill VDCs used their farm land only for subsistence oriented- cereal production while in mid-hill VDC majority use their land for both cereal and market-oriented cash crop production. Comparatively higher number of households in Mid-hill VDC have changed their farm land to market-oriented production than in other two sites. The result further indicated that households belonging to subsistence plus market-oriented production have better status of the major livelihood indicators including income, expenditure, food self-sufficiency, household physical assets and livestock holding. Analysis of livelihood transition trend indicated an increase in income and expenditure whereas decrease in food self-sufficiency in overall. The impact analysis showed that the majority of the households with cereal + market-oriented production up had increasing trend in income while households belonging to cereal + market-oriented production down had increasing trend in food self-sufficiency compared to before 10 years. Further, spatial variation in regards to the impacts of changing farm land use intensity on household income, expenditure and food self-sufficiency were observed. As indicated by the result, increasing market-oriented land use pattern have greater implication for rural poverty reduction in the study sites and in other areas with similar context. Hence, future farm land use policy should focus on cropping intensification through agroecology specific high-value cash crop production to enhance sustainable farm land use and improved livelihood in rural Nepal (Chapter 7).Fifthly, this study examined differential wellbeing status based on gender, ethnicity, agroecology and household livelihood strategy and measured the effects of different factors on it. A composite household wellbeing index was calculated and compared between socio-economic groups. Result indicated that households wellbeing vary by agroecological location, gender of household head, households’ ethnic affiliation and currently adopted household livelihood strategy. Further various factors associated with human, social, natural, physical/infrastructure, financial and location characteristics influenced household wellbeing in different level and direction. Therefore, livelihood efforts should emphasize in providing education for targeted groups, motivating rural poor for the modification of traditionally followed livelihood activities to more profitable business-oriented strategies together with investment in rural infrastructure particularly rural roads and market center in the mid-and high hill regions in order to enhance equitable wellbeing (Chapter 8).Finally, environmental impact of currently adopted livelihood activities are assessed based on currently adopted sustainable agricultural practices. For this objective, this study measured sustainable agricultural practices adopted by farming households and investigated the factors that influence the number of SAPs adoption using descriptive statistics and generalized linear regression model. The empirical result shows that a total of 12 sustainable agricultural practices have been adopted by the farmers within the study area. Adoption of different practices significantly varies by agroecological location of study villages, gender of household head and household livelihood strategies currently adopted. Result from regression model indicates that various factors associated with household, social/institutional, resources/financial and geographical/agroecological characteristics have significant influences on the adoption intensity of sustainable agricultural practices. Hence, agricultural development policy should emphasize on providing land management training, improving access to information designing and implementation of program through community based groups/organizations together with incentives for discouraging out-migration and feminization of agriculture to enhance sustainable agriculture development in Nepal (Chapter 9). Chapter 10 provides the summary and conclusion with policy suggestions based on the findings and areas of future study. 
Pages256
Language英语
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24788
Collection山区发展研究中心
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
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SHANTA PAUDEL KHATIWADA. Study on changing rural livelihood strategy and their effects: a gender disaggregated analysis (a case study from Nepal)[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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