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Alternative TitleStudy on Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of Soil and Water Conservation in Typical Small Watershed of Lhasa River in Tibet
Thesis Advisor廖晓勇
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword西藏自治区 茶巴朗小流域 协沟小流域
Abstract本文以西藏拉萨河一级支流协沟小流域、茶巴朗小流域为典型研究区,对其水土流失综合治理效益进行了科学评价。通过研究区的实地调查,并与拉萨市水土保持局相关专业人员的仔细讨论后,在水土保持综合效益评价指标选择的原则下,以前人研究成果和《水土保持综合治理效益计算方法》(GB/T15774-2008)中的评价指标为参考基础,应用层次分析法(AHP),构建了小流域水土保持综合效益评价的指标体系,涉及生态效益、经济效益、社会效益共15项指标。评价指标数据主要通过收集查阅历史存档资料、统计年鉴数据、气象数据、遥感影像图、土壤侵蚀图、土地利用现状图、小流域综合治理验收报告等资料、以及野外观测、实地调查走访、采样分析等获取,并采用取绝对值法、线性比例法和归一化法进行了无量纲化(0 ~ 1之间)处理,得到各指标的标准化值,然后根据判断矩阵得到的权重,对应加权到各指标的标准值,从而得到各指标最后的得分值。本文的研究结果如下:(1)构建了拉萨河典型小流域的水土保持综合效益评价指标体系。本研究在水土保持综合效益评价指标选择的原则下,结合研究区的野外实地调查观测、采样分析以及与当地专家的走访座谈,建立了由1个目标层因子(小流域水土保持综合效益)、3个准则层因子(生态效益、经济效益、社会效益)及15个指标层因子(土壤侵蚀模数、植被存活率、土壤持水能力、土壤容重、土壤肥力、植被覆盖率、有效土层厚度、人均粮食产量、人均纯收入、产投比、减轻土地退化、土地生产率、土地利用率、恩格尔系数、劳动力利用率等)组成的小流域水土保持综合效益评价指标体系,选取的评价指标可以较为全面、客观地反映出小流域在水土流失综合治理后其效益的差异,在指标数据获取上也具有一定的可操作性。(2)构建了拉萨河典型小流域水土保持综合效益评价模型。本研究应用层次分析法(AHP)及专家打分法构建判断矩阵,计算了准则层因子权重,获得生态效益、经济效益、社会效益三类准则层因子权重分别为0.371、0.188、0.081,CR等于0.056,明显小于0.1,权重计算结果可靠。(3)获得了拉萨河典型小流域水土保持综合效益评价结果,开展了小流域水土保持综合效益评价分析。本研究根据得到的准则层因子计算值及相应权重,计算获得茶巴朗小流域水土保持综合效益得分值为0.520,其中生态效益得分值为0.513、经济效益得分值为0.381、社会效益得分值为0.581;协沟小流域水土保持综合效益得分值为0.534,其中生态效益得分值为0.549,经济效益得分值为0.506,社会效益得分值为0.458。分析小流域水土保持综合效益评价结果可见,茶巴朗小流域、协沟小流域水土流失综合治理工程实施后,在小流域内形成了一套完善的水土保持综合防护体系,水土流失得到有效治理,植被覆盖率得到明显提高,生态环境得到显著改善,生态效益体现一致;鉴于这2个小流域所处的区位条件、农牧业生产条件、经济社会发展水平的差异,水土流失综合治理工程实施后其社会效益、经济效益稍有差异,但总体上不影响这2个小流域水土保持综合效益在同一水平上的体现,这一评价结果与2个小流域的水土流失综合治理实际情况相一致。
Other AbstractIn this paper, the Xiegou and Chabalang watersheds typical of the Lhasa River in Tibet are taken as the research object, and the benefits of comprehensive management of soil erosion are scientifically evaluated and the method for calculating benefits of comprehensive management of soil and water conservation (GB/T15774-2008) is used. The evaluation index is a reference basis. Under the principle of selecting comprehensive evaluation indicators of soil and water conservation, AHP is used to construct the three-level evaluation index system of target level, criterion level and indicator level. Combined with field surveys in the Chabalang watershed and Xiegou watershed in the study area, and careful discussions with relevant professionals from the Lhasa Municipal Bureau of Soil and Water Conservation, the indicator system for comprehensive benefits evaluation of soil and water conservation in small watersheds was identified, involving ecological and economic benefits. A total of 15 indicators of social benefits. The main methods for obtaining evaluation indicators are: historical data and archived data access, statistical yearbook data provided by local government departments in the study area, meteorological data, remote sensing image maps, soil erosion maps, land use status maps, and comprehensive treatment and acceptance reports for small watersheds. Acquiring; current information mainly through field observations, field surveys, sampling analysis, and interviews with local residents. According to the reference in GB/T15774-2008, the comprehensive benefit of water and soil conservation is a quantitative expression of the information difference before and after treatment, and can be used to determine the rate of change or change in each index before and after treatment. Indicated. After obtaining the data of 15 indicators, this paper uses the three normalization methods of absolute value method, linear proportion method, and normalization method to perform non-dimensionalization (between 0 and 1) to obtain the standardized values of each index. Then, according to the weights obtained by the judgment matrix, corresponding to the standard value weighted to each indicator, so as to obtain the final score value of each indicator.In this paper, based on the understanding and understanding of the familiarity of the two small watersheds in the study area, combined with the data obtained in the previous chapters, the results of this paper show that:(1) An evaluation index system for the comprehensive benefits of soil and water conservation in the typical small watershed of the Lhasa River was constructed. This study selected the Chabalang small watershed and Xiegou watershed of the Lhasa River as typical research areas, referring to the previous research results and the evaluation indicators in the "Comprehensive Management Benefits of Soil and Water Conservation" (GB/T15774-2008), and integrated in water and soil conservation. Under the principle of selection of benefit evaluation indicators, combined with field observation surveys, sampling analysis of small watersheds, and interviews with experts from local technical departments, a target layer factor (integrated benefits for soil and water conservation in small watersheds) and three criteria layers were established. Factors (eco-efficiency, economic benefits, social benefits) and 15 indicator factors (soil erosion modulus, vegetation survival rate, soil water holding capacity, soil bulk density, soil fertility, vegetation coverage, effective soil thickness, per capita food production The comprehensive evaluation index system for comprehensive benefits of soil and water conservation in small watersheds consisting of per capita net income, production-to-investment ratio, reduction of land degradation, land productivity, land use efficiency, Engel coefficient, and labor utilization rate, etc. and the selected evaluation indicators can be more comprehensive and objective. Reflects the comprehensive benefits of a small watershed after comprehensive management of soil erosion Different in the index data acquisition also has some maneuverability.(2) Constructed a comprehensive benefit evaluation model of water and soil conservation in the typical small watershed of the Lhasa River. In this study, AHP and expert scoring method were used to construct the judgment matrix. The weights of the criterion layer factors were calculated, and the weights of the three criteria of ecological benefits, economic benefits, and social benefits were 0.371, 0.188, and 0.081, which were equal to 0.056. The CR less than 0.1 obviously, the weight calculation result is reliable.(3) The results of the comprehensive benefits evaluation of soil and water conservation in the typical small watershed of the Lhasa River were obtained, and the comprehensive benefits of water and soil conservation in the small watershed were evaluated and analyzed. In this study, according to the calculated value of the criterion and corresponding weights, the comprehensive benefit score of soil and water conservation in the Chabalang small watershed was calculated to be 0.520, with the ecological benefit score of 0.513, the economic benefit score of 0.381, and the social benefit score. The value is 0.581; the Xiegou watershed has a comprehensive benefit score of 0.534 for soil and water conservation, of which the ecological benefit score is 0.549, the economic benefit score is 0.506, and the social benefit score is 0.458. Analysing the comprehensive benefits of soil and water conservation in small watersheds, it can be seen that after the implementation of the comprehensive water and soil erosion prevention project in Chabalang small watershed and Xiegou small watershed, a comprehensive protection system for water and soil conservation has been formed within the small watershed, and soil and water loss has been effectively treated. The rate has been significantly improved, the ecological environment has been significantly improved, and the ecological benefits have been consistent; in view of the location conditions, agricultural and animal husbandry production conditions, and the differences in economic and social development levels of the two small watersheds, the comprehensive management of soil erosion has included The benefits and economic benefits are slightly different, but they do not affect the overall benefits of soil and water conservation in the two small watersheds at the same level. This evaluation result is consistent with the actual situation of comprehensive management of soil erosion in the two small watersheds. 
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
付友行. 西藏拉萨河典型小流域水土保持综合效益评价研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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