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施磷对峨眉冷杉(Abies fabri)和麦吊云杉(Picea brachytyla)幼苗竞争关系的影响
Alternative TitleEffects of P fertilization on competition relationship between Abies fabri and Picea brachytyla seedlings
余雷
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor李春阳
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword竞争 施磷肥 资源利用效率 原生演替 海螺沟冰川退缩区
Abstract植物的竞争作用及其与环境因子之间的相互作用是植物群落动态变化的主要驱动力,但是很少有试验结合竞争作用和磷的有效性来研究原生演替的植物群落组成和变化。在我国贡嘎山海螺沟冰川退缩区,形成了罕见的从裸地砂砾到杨柳树、再到云冷杉林的原生演替系列,并且已有研究表明演替的前期缺氮,后期相对缺磷,植物的生长主要受到磷的限制。本研究以海螺沟原生演替的后期物种峨眉冷杉(Abies fabri)和麦吊云杉(Picea brachytyla)幼苗为试验材料,在采自峨眉冷杉林和麦吊云杉林下的土壤(分别简称为冷杉土和云杉土)上进行施磷肥的控制性试验,探索种内与种间竞争、施磷处理对这两种松科植物生理生态特征及叶片与根系特征的影响。另外,进行了连续两年(2015和2016年)的收获,研究施磷肥对竞争的动态变化,以及营养元素(碳氮磷)和非结构碳水化合物含量动态变化的影响。本研究将地下限制性养分元素(磷)与地上植被相结合,为揭示群落原生演替的形成机制提供一定的理论依据,同时也为恢复、重建和管理山地生态系统植被提供科学指导。主要得到以下结论:(1) 在冷杉土上,峨眉冷杉与麦吊云杉对施磷和竞争的生理生态响应。种内与种间竞争以及施磷可以调节峨眉冷杉与麦吊云杉的生物量积累和分配,碳氮磷元素含量和利用效率,非结构碳水化合物的浓度以及对不同形态氮的吸收,并且施磷肥改变了这两种松科植物的竞争结果。在没有施磷肥时,麦吊云杉的总生物量在种间竞争低于其种内竞争,而峨眉冷杉的总生物量在这两种竞争模式之间没有显著差异。在施磷处理时,峨眉冷杉在种间竞争的叶和茎以及总生物量显著大于种内竞争,而麦吊云杉的这些指标在这两种竞争模式之间没有差异,表明峨眉冷杉的生长受到麦吊云杉的促进。在施磷处理时,种间竞争的峨眉冷杉具有更强的保持碳平衡能力、更高的光合氮利用效率以及更强的氮吸收能力、更快的生长速率。因此施磷处理时,峨眉冷杉比麦吊云杉具有更强的竞争能力。(2) 在云杉土上,施磷和竞争对峨眉冷杉和麦吊云杉的叶片与根系特征的影响。在施磷处理时,与麦吊云杉相比,峨眉冷杉具有更高的净光合速率、总叶绿素含量、比叶面积、叶片氮磷浓度,以及更高的水分利用效率和氮吸收能力。施磷处理显著降低了这两种松科植物的比根长和外生菌根侵染率,减少了麦吊云杉的比根尖密度,但平均根直径在不同处理之间没有显著变化。另外,当偏相关分析统计去除磷肥的影响时,比叶面积与比根长呈正相关关系;然而,当回归分析统计没有去除磷肥的影响时,比叶面积与比根长呈负相关关系。这些结果说明这两种松科植物的比叶面积与比根长的相关关系随着磷肥梯度的变化而变化,表明植物地上与地下部分对土壤养分有效性的响应不同,外界环境(例如:土壤养分有效性)压力并不是选择一致性的叶片与根系特征。(3) 施磷对峨眉冷杉和麦吊云杉的竞争和资源动态变化的影响。在2015年没有施磷时,峨眉冷杉的生长受到麦吊云杉的促进作用,具体表现为峨眉冷杉有显著高的相对竞争强度。在施磷时,这种促进作用更为强烈,表现为种间竞争的峨眉冷杉显著增加了叶、茎和总生物量的积累,而麦吊云杉的叶、茎和总生物量在这两种竞争模式下没有差异。施磷缓解了峨眉冷杉对麦吊云杉的生长抑制,表现为麦吊云杉的相对竞争强度在施磷时显著升高。这两种松科植物在2016年的相对竞争强度变化趋势与2015年类似,并且不论是否施磷肥,麦吊云杉的相对竞争强度与2015年相比均有所升高。另外,种内与种间竞争以及施磷影响了峨眉冷杉和麦吊云杉(叶、茎和根)的基本元素(碳、氮和磷)以及非结构碳水化合物浓度的变化(从2015到2016年)。对于整株植物,施磷处理时,种间竞争显著提高了峨眉冷杉整株的碳、氮和磷元素含量,以及非结构碳水化合物含量,而麦吊云杉整株的这些指标在两种竞争模式下没有差异,除了整株氮含量。在施磷处理时,种间竞争的峨眉冷杉根、茎和叶的可溶性总糖和淀粉含量积累速率均显著高于种内竞争,而种间竞争的麦吊云杉茎和叶的可溶性总糖含量积累速率显著低于种内竞争。以上结果表明,从2015到2016年生长受到促进的物种峨眉冷杉的碳氮磷元素及非结构碳水化合物含量的积累速率较高。 总的来说,海螺沟冰川退缩区植被原生演替过程中峨眉冷杉与麦吊云杉的竞争关系明显受到土壤磷有效性的影响。在施磷处理时,峨眉冷杉具有竞争优势,其生长受到麦吊云杉的促进作用。并且施磷增加了峨眉冷杉与麦吊云杉的比叶面积但降低了比根长,说明植物叶片与根系形态特征对土壤磷有效性的响应不同。另外,连续两年(2015-2016年)的碳氮磷元素和非结构碳水化合物含量的动态表明,生长受到促进作用的峨眉冷杉的营养元素和糖类积累速率较高。
Other AbstractCompetition and modifications in environmental characteristics are the main drivers of plant community dynamics, but few studies have investigated the combined effects of competition and phosphorus availability on plant community composition and dynamics in ecological succession. A primary succession from a barren stage with some mosses to climax and a lush forest stage established in the Hailuogou glacier retreat area. In addition, many studies showed that soil N content is relatively scarce during early stage primary succession, while soil P content is relatively scarce and plants suffered P-limited during late stage primary succession. In our study, seedlings of Abies fabri and Picea brachytyla from the later stage primary succession of Hailuogou Glacier were employed, combined with competition and P fertilization. Then the eco-physiological responses as well as leaf and root traits of the two conifer species to intra- and interspecific competition and P fertilization were studied. Furthermore, we harvested twice at 2015 and 2016 in order to research the influences of P fertilization on the dynamics of competition, and the dynamics of nutrient elements and non-structural carbohydrates. Our study combined the soil limited-nutrient element (P) with plant succession, which may play an important role in determining the plant community composition and dynamics during the late stage primary succession in the Hailuogou glacier retreat area, those results also provided theory for recovering, rebuilding and managing mountain ecosystems. The main results were as follow:(1) Ecological and physiological responses of A. fabri and P. brachytyla to P fertilization and competition when plants grown in the soil collected from A. fabri plots. Intra- and interspecific competition and P fertilization can regulate biomass accumulation and allocation of the two conifer species, affect element content and use efficiency, non-structural carbohydrate metabolism and uptake of N in different form. Thus, P fertilization changed the competition outcomes of A. fabri and P. brachytyla. Under non-fertilization condition, total biomass of P. brachytyla was lower under interspecific competition than intraspecific competition, but there were no differences in total biomass of A. fabri under the two competition patterns. Under P fertilization condition, the leaf, stem and total biomass of A. fabri significantly increased under interspecific competition compared with intraspecific competition, but those parameters of P. brachytyla showed no differences between the two competition patterns, which indicated the growth of A. fabri was facilitated by P. brachytyla. High ability to keep carbon balance (e.g., higher water use efficiency), higher photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE), the better N acquisition ability as well as higher growth rate make A. fabri trees better competitors when compared to P. brachytyla under P fertilization. The results indicated that P plays an important role in determining asymmetric competition patterns among Pinaceae species. (2) Effects of competition and P fertilization on leaf and root traits of A. fabri and P. brachytyla when using the soil collected from P. brachytyla plots. Our results indicated that A. fabri had greater net photosynthetic rate, total chlorophyll content and specific leaf area (SLA), higher leaf N and P concentration, as well as higher water use efficiency (assessed by δ13C) and N absorption relative to P. brachytyla under P fertilization conditions. Furthermore, P fertilization significantly decreased specific root length (SRL) and ectomycorrhizal infection of both species and specific root tip density of P. brachytyla, while average root diameter showed no significant differences among each treatment. In addition, there was a positive correlation between SLA and SRL when partial correlations were used to statistically remove the influence of P fertilization, but also a negative correlation between SLA and SRL without remove the influence of P fertilization. These results indicated that relationships between SLA and SRL changed with P fertilization, suggesting that soil nutrient availability may be fundamentally different for plant above- and belowground components, instead of consistent selection for coordinated leaf and root traits.(3) P fertilization affected the competition and resource dynamics of A. fabri and P. brachytyla. Under non-fertilization condition in 2015, the growth of A. fabri was facilitated by P. brachytyla owing to the former had significant higher relative competition intensity (RCI) than the later. Under P fertilization condition, the facilitated effects were more intensity, because the leaf, stem and total biomass of A. fabri significantly increased under interspecific competition compared with intraspecific competition, but those parameters of P. brachytyla showed no differences between the two competition patterns. In addition, P fertilization could ameliorate the inhibition of P. brachytyla, which significantly increased the relative competition intensity under P fertilization. In 2016, relative competition intensity of the two conifer species had similar tendency of 2015. Whether added P fertilization or not, the relative competition intensity of P. brachytyla increased in 2016 compared with 2015. Furthermore, intra- and interspecific competition and P fertilization caused temporal variation in C, N, P and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations from 2015 to 2016. Under whole plant level and P fertilization condition, C, N, P, soluble sugar, starch and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) contents of A. fabri significantly increased under interspecific competition than intraspecific competition, but those parameters of P. brachytyla showed no differences between the two competition patterns except N content. Under P fertilization condition, soluble sugar, starch and NSC accumulation ratio of each organ of A. fabri significantly increased under interspecific competition than intraspecific competition, but soluble sugar accumulation ratio of leaf and stem of P. brachytyla significantly decreased under interspecific competition than intraspecific competition. Those results showed that the growth of A. fabri greatly benefited from the presence of P. brachytyla when exposed to P fertilization and it tended to have higher C, N, P and non-structural carbohydrate accumulation ratio.In conclusion, the present study indicated that soil P availability influenced the outcomes of competition between A. fabri and P. brachytyla during the late stages of primary succession in the Gongga Mountain glacier retreat area. Under P fertilization condition, A. fabri displayed a competitive advantage, and the growth of A. fabri was facilitated by P. brachytyla. In addition, P fertilization significantly increased the specific leaf area of A. fabri and P. brachytyla but decreased the specific root length; those results indicated that soil P availability may be fundamentally different for plant leaf and root morphological traits. Furthermore, from 2015 to 2016, the dynamics of C, N, P and NSC contents indicated that A. fabri greatly benefited from the presence of P. brachytyla when exposed to P fertilization and it tended to have higher nutrient elements and non-structural carbohydrate accumulation ratio. 
Pages121
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24794
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
余雷. 施磷对峨眉冷杉(Abies fabri)和麦吊云杉(Picea brachytyla)幼苗竞争关系的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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