IMHE OpenIR
基于遥感的我国西南地区IUCN生态系统红色名录研究
Alternative TitleThe Study on IUCN Red List of Ecosystems in Southwestern China Based on Remotely Sensed data
谭剑波
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor李爱农
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline自然地理学
KeywordIUCN生态系统红色名录 遥感 时空模拟预测 生态系统环境响应曲线 多尺度评估
Abstract生物多样性是地球上重要的资源宝库,为地球生物提供生活必需品。随着人类活动加剧以及全球变化的影响,世界生物多样性水平大幅度下滑,直接影响到人类福祉。生态系统作为生物多样性的宏观层次,其退化是导致生物多样性降低的主要因素之一。为了有效遏制生物多样性的退化趋势,世界自然保护联盟(International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN)下属的生态系统管理委员会(Commission on Ecosystem Management, CEM)从生态系统的四个要素出发,制定了IUCN生态系统红色名录评价标准来评估生态系统水平上的生物多样性状况,并被采纳为国际公认的生态系统受威胁的评估体系。然而由于生态系统的宏观性,该评估体系在实际评估过程中如何实施、存在什么问题以及适用性如何还有待进一步研究。根据遥感大范围、实时以及多尺度监测的特点,研究将遥感与评估体系的评估指标有机结合,探讨利用遥感开展IUCN生态系统红色名录评估的可行性,同时也为拓展IUCN生态系统红色名录评估框架在区域尺度上的应用以及完善评估体系提供理论和实践支撑。本文回顾了生态系统红色名录评估的方法以及研究进展,综述了IUCN生态系统红色名录评估体系以及实际评估中可能存在的问题,以西南山区为例,从指标的科学性和应用需求方面,探讨了基于遥感开展IUCN生态系统红色名录评估的可行性,针对标准A、标准C以及实际应用需求,本文主要开展了以下三个方面的研究:1深入考虑自然和社会经济要素驱动自然生态系统生境面积的变化,耦合生态位模拟模型和土地覆被预测模型,开展生态系统未来生境分布时空模拟与预测,构建生境退化指标;2从生态系统对环境的响应机制出发,开展了基于生态系统响应曲线和遥感构建非生物环境退化指标的研究;3根据IUCN生态系统红色名录空间信息缺乏,不便于生态系统管理,提出了多尺度评估框架,丰富西南地区生态系统红色名录的信息。通过研究本文得到如下的结论:(1)耦合系统动力模型、元胞自动机模型以及最大熵值模型预测西双版纳实验区2000年到2010年的天然林转化精度达84.2%,表明该耦合模型在预测生态系统时空分布的过程中能充分考虑社会经济以及气候变化对模拟预测的影响,有较好的模拟效果,为IUCN生态系统生境面积过去和未来变化指标的获取提供了新的方法,同时为考虑自然因素的生态位模拟模型和考虑人类活动的土地利用变化模型的融合提供了参考。(2)基于遥感和生态系统响应曲线的非生物环境退化评估方法得到西双版纳实验区天然林当前受温度的威胁程度仅为1.06%,而随着未来温度的升高,威胁程度显著增加,特别是望天林等生态系统,在RCP8.5的模式下,其威胁程度达到45.12%,同时生态系统的适宜区有往高海拔地区移动的趋势,该结论与其它研究结果基本一致。引入响应曲线的方法大大提高非生物环境退化指标在实际应用的可评估性和可对比性,提升了该标准的理论基础,而利用遥感数据结合其它辅助数据构建非生物环境响应曲线的方法,为数据缺乏的地区,开展生态系统非生物环境退化的评估提供了有效途径。(3)利用多个范围尺度开展西南地区生态系统红色名录的评估表明,西南地区受威胁生态系统数目占了33.33%,但面积仅占1.55%,受威胁生态系统的平均面积缩减率达45%,生境限制分布和退化是西南地区生态系统受威胁的主要因素,而生态系统空间代表性是开展系统评估重要的考虑因素。同时,多个范围尺度方法提供了不同层次上的生态系统受威胁状况,可以满足不同水平上生物多样性保护的需求,丰富了生态系统红色名录的空间信息,为保护资源的有效配置以及开展针对性的生态系统管理与保护提供了数据基础,提高了生态系统红色名录的在保护实践中的应用水平。
Other AbstractBiodiversity is an important treasure house, providing a suitable habitat and basic demands for the life on the earth. With the intensification of human activities and the impact of global changes, the level of biodiversity around the world has dramatically declined. These changes directly affect the well-being of mankind and the level of ecosystem services and functions. As ecosystems represent the macro level of biodiversity, the degradation of ecosystems is one of the main factors that lead to biodiversity loss. In order to prevent biodiversity from loss, Ecosystem Management Committee (Commission on Ecosystem Management, CEM) has launched the protocols of International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Ecosystems based on four elements of ecosystems to achieve a direct assessment of ecosystems risks. The standard has been adopted as an internationally recognized assessment system for the threat of ecosystems. However, considering the macro extent of ecosystems, how the protocol execute in the practice, what’s the problem during the assessment and the applicability of the protocol needs further study. According to the wide range, real-time and multi-scale of remotely sensed imagery, the study acquire the indices of protocol based on remotely sensed data to explore the feasibility of ecosystems risk assessment through the combination of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems standard and remotely sensed data. Furthermore, the study also aims to provide theoretical and practical support for extending the application of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystem standard on ecosystems risk assessment at the regional scale and perfecting this protocol.This paper has reviewed the method of acquiring the Red List of Ecosystems and its research advances, summarized the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems standard and the problems that might be met during the ecosystems risk assessment in practice based on the protocol. The study taken the Southwest China, a mountain region and biodiversity hotspots, as an example to test the feasibility of acquiring the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems based on remotely sensed data. Four aspects are the main research contents of this study: 1 considering the influence of background climate effects and socio-economy on the landscape dynamic, the study coupled ecological niche model and land cover prediction model to precisely modeling the distribution of natural ecosystems in the future which provide data for the criterion of decling distribution; 2 considering the response mechanism of ecosystems to environment, the study proposed an ecosystem response curve to environment method to access the criterion of degradation of abiotic environment; 3 as the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems lacking of spatial information and its inconvenient in ecosystem management, the study proposed a framework of a hierarchy of spatial domains for IUCN ecosystems risk assessment to enrich information for IUCN Red List of Ecosystems in Southwest ChinaThe main points can be concluded as follows:(1) The precision in simulating the transform of natural forest in Xishuangbanna from 2000 to 2010 reaches to 84.2% model based on the model combining with the system dynamic model, cellular automaton model and maximum entropy model. The combined model can fully consider the impact of climate changes and socio-economy on the simulation landscape dynamics of natural ecosystems, which provides a new method for obtaining the index of decling distribution in IUCN Red List of Ecosystems standard. Furthermore, the proposed method provides reference for combing the land use change model (considering human activities) and ecological niche model (considering climate effects).(2) The threatened status of natural forest in Xishuangbanna at present is only 1.06% based on the method of combining the response curve and remote sensing in evaluation of abiotic degradation of ecosystem. With the future temperature rising, the threat level increases significantly. Under the model of RCP8.5, the threat level of Parashorea chinensis is 45.12%. And the suitable bioclimatic zone have the potential to move to higher altitude, which is consistent with the other conclusions. The method can add ecological basis to this criterion and greatly improve the application and consistent of this criterion by eliciting the response curve of ecosystems to environment. Using remote sensing data and other auxiliary data to construct the response curve of ecosystems to environment provides an effective way to evaluate abiotic environmental degradation based on ecosystem response curve approach where data are unavailable.(3) The ratio of number of threatened ecosystem in Southwestern China is 33.33%, but the ratio of area of threatened ecosystem is only 1.55%. The average area reduction rate of the threatened ecosystem is 45%. Restriction distribution and degradation are one of the main factors that lead ecosystems to threatened status in Southwestern China. The result indicates that the proposed hierarchical assessment, assessing the risk of ecosystem in a hierarchy of spatial domains (regional and provincial small watershed), provide the threatened status of ecosystems at different levels, which can meet the requirement of biodiversity at different levels. The proposed method enriched IUCN Red List of Ecosystems with spatial information and provide data for an efficient allocation of conservation resources and targeted ecosystem management, which markedly improved the practical applications of IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. 
Pages150
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24797
Collection中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
谭剑波. 基于遥感的我国西南地区IUCN生态系统红色名录研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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