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溪洛渡库区土地覆被变化及土壤侵蚀响应
Alternative TitleThe change of land cover and the response of soil erosion in xilodu reservoir area
彭玉芝
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor范建容
2018
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline地图学与地理信息系统
Keyword溪洛渡库区 遥感 土地覆被变化 植被覆盖变化 土壤侵蚀
Abstract本文以溪洛渡水电站库区为研究区,溪洛渡水电站工程是我国第二大水电站,建设周期长,从2005年到2015年全部运行,前后有一个完整的周期,有利于对比研究和验证。并且研究区地处川滇干热河谷水土保持的重要区域,溪洛渡库区生态脆弱,植被退化,土壤侵蚀严重,且土地覆被变化与土壤侵蚀密切相关,掌握研究区的植被覆盖、土地覆被以及土壤侵蚀的时空分布变化特征,分析水电工程建设对植被覆盖和土壤侵蚀的影响,有利于我们及时掌握库区生态状况,这对库区绿色可持续发展也有重要意义。因此本文的主要研究内容如下:(1)结合遥感影像研究和实地调查,分析溪洛渡库区在水电建设前后的土地覆被情况和工程区在施工期间及运行后的土地覆被情况。(2)通过多尺度多指标的方法,对2004-2016年间溪洛渡库区和工程区的植被覆盖变化趋势进行了分析,本文的研究方法不同于以往的遥感监测植被覆盖状况方法,采用MODIS-NDVI16天的日数据,用最大值合成统计出每年平均的NDVI日数据(NDVI均)和NDVI每个像元的年最大值(NDVImax),并在多尺度范围下对这两个指标的多年值进行对比分析,快速有效地从宏观角度上反映了植被覆盖的时空动态变化。(3)综合遥感影像解译获得的土地覆被信息、野外采集并计算出的土壤指标、DEM和降水等数据,采用修正后的通用土壤侵蚀方程估算溪洛渡库区和工程区的土壤侵蚀量,并分析其时空变化特征。考虑到研究区附近气象站点较稀疏,无法插值出较大区域的数据,本文采用加密插值的方法估算降雨侵蚀力,经过分析,金沙江流域各个气象站点降水数据和TRMM降水数据估算降雨侵蚀力的结果在合理误差范围内(精度达到82%),TRMM降雨数据对实测数据进行加密插值能提高本文研究区的降雨侵蚀力因子的准确度。研究结论:(1)从2004年到2016年,库区变化较大的土地覆被类型为:旱地、乔木林、灌木林、草地和建设用地,2009年到2011年林地面积减少,是由于水电工程建设对库区林地影响较大造成的,而后采取措施,直到2013年,植被面积增加。工程区主要土地覆被类型为灌木林和建设用地,工程区变化较大的土地覆被类型为:水域、灌木林、乔木林。到2016年建设用地大量减少,林地和灌木地增加。(2)2004-2016年植被覆盖变化明显,总体上和水电工程施工进度时间变化一致,说明库区和工程区的植被覆盖变化受施工等人为因素的影响较大。(3)2004-2016年土壤侵蚀呈先减小后增大再减小的趋势,2007年侵蚀最弱, 2013年侵蚀最剧烈,2016年侵蚀又减小,库区目前的生态状态有转好的趋势,但侵蚀仍较重,且以轻度侵蚀为主,中度、强烈侵蚀有明显增大的趋势,但总体增幅不大。工程区2007年侵蚀最弱,2013年最剧烈,2016年侵蚀减弱。2013年和2016年中度及以上的侵蚀面积较多,尤其是2013年,侵蚀最为剧烈的范围主要集中在河流两岸的陡坡及坡耕地。2016年侵蚀减弱,但岸边侵蚀仍然高于其他区域。总的来说,溪洛渡水电工程在施工期间对库区的植被、土壤侵蚀影响较大,造成了植被覆盖的波动变化和施工区的土壤侵蚀加剧,造成了林地土地覆被类型的减少。但在施工后期即运行期,植被覆盖逐渐恢复,土壤侵蚀明显减少减弱,植被面积也有所增加。说明施工单位在施工后期采取了切实有效的植被恢复和水土保持措施。
Other AbstractTaking xiluodu hydropower station reservoir area as the study area, Xiluodu hydropower station is the second largest hydropower station in China, and the construction period is long. From 2005 to 2015, there is a complete cycle, which is beneficial to the comparative study and verification. Moreover, the research area is located in the important area of soil and water conservation in the dry and hot valley of sichuan and yunnan. The main habitat problems are vegetation degradation and soil erosion. Therefore, the main research contents of this paper are as follows: (1) Combined with remote sensing image research and field investigation, this paper analyzes the land cover situation of the reservoir area and construction area before and after the construction of hydropower station. (2) By the method of multi-scale and multi-index, The change of vegetation cover in xilodu reservoir area and engineering area between 2004 and 2016 was analyzed. The research method of this paper is different from that of previous remote sensing monitoring vegetation coverage methods. Using the MODIS every 16 days NDVI data, and the method of Maximum Value Composites (MVC), statistic the average annual NDVI data (NDVImean) and the maximum NDVI (NDVImax) of each pixel, and By comparing and analyzing these two indexes, the spatial and temporal dynamic changes of vegetation cover are quickly and effectively reflected in the multi-scale range. (3) Integrated remote sensing image interpreted land cover information, field collected and calculated soil indicators, DEM and precipitation datas, using the revised universal soil erosion equation estimate soil erosion of xiluodu reservoir area and conservation area, and analyze its spatiotemporal characteristics. Conclusions: (1) From 2003 to 2016, the types of land cover that changed greatly in the reservoir area were: dry land, tree forest, shrub forest, grassland and construction land. From 2009 to 2011, the reduction of forestland area was caused by the impact of hydropower project on the forest land in the reservoir area, and then measures were taken. Until 2013, the vegetation area increased. The main land cover type of engineering area is shrubbery and construction land. The types of land cover that have changed greatly in engineering area are: water body, shrubbery, and tree forest. Construction land has been greatly reduced in 2016, and woodland and shrubs have increased. (2) The change of vegetation cover in 2004-2016 is obvious, and the overall construction progress of hydropower project is consistent with the change of construction schedule. It indicates that the change of vegetation cover in the reservoir area and engineering area is greatly influenced by human factors such as construction. (3) In 2004-2007, soil erosion decreased and then increased and then decreased. The current ecological state of the reservoir area has a good tendency, but the erosion is still heavy, and the trend of moderate and strong erosion was obviously increased with mild erosion, but the overall increase was not significant. The engineering area was the weakest in 2007, the most severe in 2013 and the erosion in 2016.In 2013 and 2016, there were more moderate and higher erosion areas, especially in 2013, the most severe erosion was concentrated on the steep slopes and sloping fields on both sides of the river. Erosion has weakened in 2016, but coastal erosion is still higher than elsewhere. Overall, xiluodu hydropower project in the construction period has great influence on vegetation and soil of reservoir area, caused the fluctuation of vegetation cover and the aggravation of soil erosion in the construction area, and the main reduction of land cover type is forestland. However, during the later period of construction, vegetation coverage gradually recovered, soil erosion decreased significantly and vegetation area increased. It is indicated that the construction unit has adopted effective soil recovery measures in the late term of construction. 
Pages79
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/24799
Collection中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Affiliation中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
彭玉芝. 溪洛渡库区土地覆被变化及土壤侵蚀响应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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