IMHE OpenIR  > 成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
青藏高原流域景观格局分析与生态风险评价-以尼洋河流域为例
Alternative TitleStudy of the Landscape Patterns and Evaluation of the Ecological Risk on the Basin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateaus-A Case Study on Niyang River Basin
Language中文
何晓蓉
Thesis Advisor钟祥浩
2005
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword尼兴河流域 景观生态学 景观生态系统 景观 景观格局 景观动态过程 景观功能 生态风险 景观生态规划与管理
Abstract景观生态学是介于地理学和生态学之间的交叉学科,用生态学原理和系统分析方法研究景观的结构和功能,研究景观的动态变化、相互作用间的物质循环和能量交换,研究景观的分类、评价、规划和管理。本研究基于景观生态学的基本原理,以青藏高原的典型流域一尼洋河流域为实例,建立了流域景观分类系统、评价景观格局、分析景观格局与景观动态和景观功能的相互作用;分析和评价了流域景观生态风险,并制成了研究区景观生态风险分级图;在此基础上,对流域进行了景观规划和管理的探讨,为流域的可持续发展提供借鉴。全文共分8章:第一章,绪论;第二章,景观生态学研究进展;第三章,尼洋河流域基本概况;第四章,尼洋河流域景观分类系统;第五章,尼洋河流域景观生态分析与评价;第六章,尼洋河流域景观生态风险评价;第七章,尼洋河流域景观规划与管理;第八章,总结与展望。本文首先通过对流域景观分异因素的探讨,根据研究的主要目的,建立尼洋河流域景观分类系统,并利用ERDASIMAGINE处理遥感影像、在GIS技术支持下制成尼洋河流域景观类型图;其次,通过对景观类型的基本数据的统计,应用相关景观格局指数分析和评价了流域景观格局现状,同时分析了流域主要景观动态过程和景观功能及其与景观格局的相互作用;接着,应用景观格局指数为主要评价指标,以流域主要生态系统的生态损失值为评价标准,考虑流域的主要灾害或事件对生态系统的影响及其发生的概率或速率,计算生态系统的生态风险指数,对流域生态风险进行分级评价;最后,运用景观规划和管理基本原理,根据生态风险评价结果,对流域景观进行景观要素布局,提出景观管理的主要对策。论文研究主要得出以下结论:(1)尼洋河流域景观类型以自然景观占绝对优势,半自然景观和人工景观面积很小。(2)流域的景观多样性好,景观类型丰富,具有高度集中分布的特征,景观斑块的均匀度指数小;流域廊道体系具有构成简单、连通性差、环度小、缺乏生态廊道的特点;(3)景观类型的动态变化缓慢,主要表现为林地面积减少和草地面积扩大;河流廊道的动态变化具有年径流量缓慢增加、泥沙含量增加、上游年均最低水位下降的特征,从一定程度上揭示了流域景观格局的演变以及流域生态系统功能的变化,也说明上游地区水源涵养功能下降。(4)通过对流域主要控制性景观生态系统的组织结构、生态系统活力和抵抗干扰和恢复能力的分析,得出尼洋河流域的景观生态系统处于相对健康的水平的定性评判结果。(5)制成了尼洋河流域的景观生态风险分级图:高生态风险区主要分布于河谷的人类活动集中分布地区;大面积的裸岩冻土等景观类型区虽然具有较高的生态损失值,但由于灾害或事件的发生概率较小以及人类活动影响小,其生态风险指数较小;人类活动集中分布地区虽然具有较小的生态损失值,但由于灾害或事件的发生概率较大,因而具有较高的生态风险指数。(6)人类活动的有利干扰和维护即"合理的景观生态规划与管理"是流域可持续发展的重要途径。
Other AbstractLandscape ecology is a crossed-discipline between ecology and geography, which use the principles of ecology and the methods of system analysis to research the landscape structure and function, to research landscape dynamics, material cycle and energy exchange, and to research landscape classification, evaluation, planning and management. Based on the fundamental of landscape ecology, taking Niyang River Basin as an example, this research establishes the landscape classification system of basin, appraises the landscape patterns, and analyzes the reciprocity of patterns with dynamics and functions. Moreover, the landscape ecological risks in the basin are analyzed and evaluated, and the ecological risks grade is mapped. At last, the landscape planning and management of the basin is discussed, which provides the useful references to the sustainable development of the basin. This paper consists of eight chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Advance of study on landscape ecology; (3) Background of Niyang River Basin; (4) The landscape classification system of Niyang River Basin; (5) Landscape ecological analysis and evaluation; (6) Evaluation on the landscape ecological risk of Niyang River Basin; (7) Landscape planning and management; (8) Summarization and prospect. First, in accordance with main research purpose, the landscape classification system of Niyang River Basin is founded, based on discuss of differentiated factors of this basin. According to the coordinates provided by G1S and ERDAS IMAGINE, the landscape classification is mapped. Then, on the basis of data statistics of landscape types, combined with the correlative indices analysis of landscape patterns evaluation, the status, reciprocity, dynamic process and function of landscape patterns of the basin are analyzed. Next, by considering the evaluation indices of landscape patterns as main factors, the ecological loss of main ecological systems as assessment standard, and the probability of main ecological disasters or the important events, the indices of ecological risks are calculated and the grade of ecological risk are appraised. Last, applying with the basic fundamental of landscape planning and management, according to the results of the evaluation of ecological risk, the patterns of landscape elements are designed and the main countermeasures of landscape management are suggested. There are some conclusions as follows: (1) In Niyang River Basin, natural landscape is an absolute dominance type of landscape, and the semi-natural landscape and man-made landscape are only the small part. (2) Landscape diversity of the basin is well. The landscape types are abundant, which are characterized by highly centralized distribution and have low value of evenness index. The corridor system is characterized by the simple structure, bad connectivity, small circle corridor and lack of eco-functional corridors. (3)The dynamic changes of landscape type are very slow, which are mainly represented with the changes of woodland reducing and grassland enlarging. The dynamic changes of river corridors have the features of slowly increasing of annual runoff and sediment content, and have the descendant trends of annual lowest water level, which reveals, to a certain extent, the evolvement of landscape patterns, the function changes of ecological system and also disclosed that the function of water conservation of region in upper reaches is declining. (4)According to the analysis on the structure , vigor, resistance and resilience of dominant landscape ecosystems, the results reveal that the ecological health level of landscape ecosystem is well in Niyang River Basin. (5) The ecological risks grade of the basin is mapped. And it is pointed that the region with high ecological risk mainly distributes in the river valley with centralized human activities. Most of exposed rocks and frozen ground et al. have low values of ecological risk index, which have higher value of ecological loss and lower probability of disasters or events taking place than other places. While the regions with centralized human activities have high values of ecological risk index, which have lower value of ecological loss and higher probability of disasters or events. (6) The reasonable landscape planning and management provided by human is the important approach to maintain the sustainable development of basin.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/5559
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
何晓蓉. 青藏高原流域景观格局分析与生态风险评价-以尼洋河流域为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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