IMHE OpenIR  > 成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
中国山区聚落持续发展与管理研究——以岷江上游为例
Alternative TitleSustainable Development and Management of China Mountain-Settlement: A Case Study of the Upper Reach of Minjiang River
Language中文
沈茂英
Thesis Advisor陈国阶
2005
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword山区聚落 持续发展与管理 崛江上游 聚落贫困 发展对策
Abstract"中国山区聚落持续发展与管理研究",立足于农村可持续发展理论,围绕全面构建山区和谐社会、推进山区全面小康建设所进行的一项基础性、探索性、实用性研究。本文运用传统聚落研究法与社会调查法为基本研究手段,结合国际流行的参与式(PRA,RRA)方法、现代生态学的系统结构与功能分析法,以氓江上游流域为研究对象,以典型聚落为分析单元,构建山区聚落持续发展与管理理论基础与评价方法,提出崛江上游聚落发展思路与管理对策。全文共分6大部分由14章组成。第一部分为理论框架,包括第一章一绪论,提出立题依据与意义、研究现状、理论基础、研究方法及创新点;第二章一聚落概念、结构与功能。梳理不同学科对聚落及聚落结构的理解与解释,讨论聚落体系及特征、聚落功能;第三章一聚落发展回顾、模式与管理手段。第二部分讨论山区聚落特征及可持续发展评价,包括第四章一山区聚落特征研究,从山区聚落分布入手,分析山区聚落资源、社会、经济和民族人口属性特征,提出山区聚落发展面临的问题;第五章一山区聚落持续发展管理的内涵与评价。在回顾可持续发展理论、评价方法基础上,界定山区聚落持续发展与管理内涵,初步提出山区聚落发展评价指标及运用。第三部分以眠江上游流域为研究单元,分析聚落发展的区域背景、聚落演化机制及聚落分类,包括第六章油民江上游聚落发展区域背景分析,第七章汕民江上游聚落空间演变机制和第八章抽民江上游聚落分类及基本特征。第四部分为微观案例研究,讨论不同区域聚落发展管理模式及聚落贫困问题,包括第九章抽民江上游湿润气候区聚落发展管理研究,第十章一干旱河谷气候区聚落发展研究,第十一章一北部高原气候区聚落发展研究,第十二章一聚落贫困及成因研究。第五部分提出聚落发展思路与管理对策,包括第十三章一聚落持续发展思路与管理政策,从聚落发展思路出发,提出聚落发展的经济对策、社会响应对策以及生态保护对策,并首次提出特殊聚落的保护与发展举措最后一部分是总结与展望,对全文的讨论作简要总结,指出研究不足。主要结论:(1)界定乡村聚落的概念及组成要素。乡村聚落是乡村社会最基本的社会设置单元,由6大要素构成,即城市以外的农村社会、有清楚的地域界限,地域范围内的居住人口、有一定的认同感并为此设立相应的社会组织、适应人口生存发展的建筑物及各类附属设施、有一定的自然资源和环境要素。(2)提出乡村聚落体系由"县城镇一中心镇(建制镇)一集镇一中心村一基层村(自然村)一散居村"6个层次组成。不同层次对应不同的聚落发展功能。(3)山区聚落普遍贫困,并对自然资源及环境高度依赖,"靠山吃山",形成山区聚落特有的社会经济文化属性。(4)聚落持续发展是农村聚落所追求的一种理想状态和过程,可以通过调控管理聚落资源来实现。评价聚落持续发展的指标有经济指标、社会指标、环境支撑指标和管理指标。(5)岷江上游属于典型山地生态系统,通过对崛江上游典型聚落发展管理的系列案例研究发现:一是崛江上游乡村聚落的生产生活方式正在发生变化,传统农业在农户家庭经营中的地位逐步下降,非农业收入比重逐步上升。二是聚落劳动力非农化比例逐渐提高,农村劳动力开始"离土不离乡"就地转移,并进一步加剧乡村聚落的空间分布,河谷聚落、马路聚落等增多。三是不同海拔高度下,聚落集中程度及人口民族构成差异大,低海拔地区,聚落多分散、人口多汉族。四是聚落管理模式差异大,这与聚落组织结构及领导班子有关。五是聚落基础设施供给与社会福利,主要受聚落管理水平控制。六是庭园资源开发利用是农户收入的重要组成部分,海拔越低、非农产业越发达,庭园贡献越大。七崛江上游乡村聚落贫困十分普遍,有32%的行政村为省级重点贫困村。(6)在聚落发展思路上要实现五个转变:一是从自然村到中心村、劣势村到优势村的转变;二是从空间距离到时间距离的转变;三是从农产品生产自给自救向商品生产转变;四是从生存为主到生态为主的转变;五是从分散到聚集的发展转变。(7)山民江上游聚落发展对策,应以特色产业为支柱,重点发展特色农业及加工、特色旅游、特色生物资源开发利用。要重视人力资源开发与培养工作。要强化基础设施建设,改善聚落出行条件,让聚落居民走得出、看得见、听得到,以分享社会进步。要继续实施退耕还林、天然林保护、退牧还草、小流域治理等生态建设工程,完善相关补助政策和补偿机制。对特殊聚落(古羌寨、藏寨、自然保护区核心区、库区、旅游区聚落)实施开发与保护并重的发展措施。
Other Abstract"Research on Sustainable Development and Management of China Mountain-Settlement" is a kind of foundational work with exploratory and operational significance to serve the comprehensive well-being society construction. Employed the research methods of the traditional settlement and social survey as the basic methods, combined the popular development research method such as PRA & RRA with the structure and functional analytic methods, taking the Upper Reach of Minjiang River as a research area, the specific settlement as a unit analysis, this dissertation makes an attempt to establish the sustainable development and management theory for China mountain-settlement, and puts forward the management strategy. The whole dissertation consists 6 parts and includes 14 chapters. Part 1 discusses the theoretical framework, including Chapterl, introduction. This chapter expounds the significance of thesis, summary of the existing study on rural resettlement development and management both in home and abroad, theoretical framework, the employed methods and the achieved innovation. Chapter2 focuses on the concepts, structure and function of rural settlement. Basing on summarizing the concepts of settlement from the related subjects, this chapter conceptualizes the rural settlement and its elements, puts on the settlement hierarchy and the corresponding function. Chapter 3 is the theory & methods and patterns of settlement development. Part 2 focuses on the characteristics and sustainable development of China mountain settlement, including Chapter 4, the characteristics of China mountain-settlement. Starting from the distribution of China mountain-settlement, chapter4 explains features of the settlement-based natural resources, social-culture, economic mechanism and people's nationality, then analyses the weakness faced by mountain-settlement. Chapter5 discusses the essence of sustainable development and management of mountain-settlement as well as the evaluating methods. With reviewing the concept and assessment method of sustainable development, this chapter not only defines feature of settlement sustainable development, also establishes the indicators for measuring settlement sustainable development, and analyses the driving factors contributing to the sustainable development. Part 3 concentrates on the Upper Reach of Minjiang River and discusses the regional settings, the evolving mechanism and classification of the settlement, including Chapter 6, focusing on regional settings. Chapter 7 discusses the review on population dynamics and evolving mechanism of the rural settlement. Chapter 8 is on settlement classification and its characteristics. Part 4 focuses on the settlement study, and discusses the development and management patterns in the different areas in the Upper Reach of Minjiang River, including 9, case study in the wetness area with lower altitude. ChapterlO is the case study in the dry valley areas in the middle of the Upper Reach of Minjiang River. Chapterll discusses the allocation of the settlement-based resources and its management patterns in the northern plateau in the Upper Reach of Minjiang River. Chapterl2 focuses on the poverty and its rooted causes. Part 5 discusses the recommendations both on development strategy and management countermeasures for settlement-oriented sustainable development. The last part briefly puts on the conclusions and discussion in this dissertation. The main conclusions follow as below. (1) Rural settlement is a kind of basic social setting unit, which consists of 6 elements, namely, the settlement must be in rural area with clear boundary, people and its interaction within the boundary, the social organization, the construction and the adhering materials, natural resources and environment. (2)Settlement hierarchy in rural area usually composes by "top-town (with county-government) - granted town -township-administrated village- group- scattered household" 6 levels. The function in each level is quite different. (3)Poverty and natural resources completely depended are the common issues faced by the mountain settlements, which also contributes to the settlement's characteristics on social-economic culture and people's nationality. Self-supporting are both in food and productive materials. Backwardness, illiteracy, stereotype are the main words to describe the mountain settlement. (4) The settlement-based sustainable development is only the ideal process for pursuing endless, which can be achieved by the comprehensive management system on settlement's resource. 4 kinds of indicators that are the economic indicators, social progress indicators, supporting indicators and management indicators measure the development situation and potentiality. (5) The Upper Reach of Minjiang River is a typical region on mountain ecosystem and its settlement can be reflected most of China mountain-settlement. This dissertation gets 7-findings on this specific area. First, the lifestyle of the research settlements is changed gradually. The role played by the traditional agricultural activities reduces little by little and the contribution from the off-farming sector increases. Second, off-farming labors increase and accelerate the spatial distribution of the rural settlement. Settlements along the main road and valley are increasing. Third, with the lifting altitude, the households concentrate the certain areas and form large settlement and dominant population is ethnic with extensive management and more depended on the primitive resources. Fourth, management patterns in different areas are quite different. The most important factors for the management pattern are the organization and its capacity within the settlement. Fifth, supply of the social infrastructure and the collective welfare within the settlement are usually controlled by the settlement's management capacity. Sixth, income from the home garden or backyard is one of the main income-sources. The lower altitude and the more developed off-farming sectors, the bigger contribution of the home-garden. Seventh, settlement-based poverty is very popular. About 32% of the administrative communities are the provincial poverty community.(6) Development strategy for mountain settlement. 5 changes should be taken for the mountain-settlement development, which are changes from the spontaneous settlements to the central and from the disadvantageous to the advantageous, from the spatial distance to the time distance, from the self-supporting-oriented production to the market-oriented production, from surviving livelihood to the ecological livelihood, and from the disperse to the conglomeration. (7) Countermeasures recommended to the Upper Reach of Minjiang River. First, boost the supporting industry strongly related to the settlement's development. The specific agricultural industry and food processing, tourism industry and the processing industry on the endemic biological resources can be regarded as the key supporting industry. Second, boost capacity building on the human resources. Third, strengthen infrastructure and improve the approaching condition to help the local to know the outside and enjoy the social progress through seeing, hearing and watching. Fourth, continue to carry on the existing environment protecting program such as natural forestry protecting program, conversion the slope cropland to forestland program, reducing the herds to reserve the pasture and other environmental program. Improve the subsidy system and establish the watershed compensating system. Finally, protect and develop the specific settlements such as the ethnic communities with long history, communities within the nature reserve park and the scenery spots.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/6186
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
沈茂英. 中国山区聚落持续发展与管理研究——以岷江上游为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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