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基于景观格局的三峡库区生态承载力研究——以开县为例
Language中文
刘孝宝
Thesis Advisor钟祥浩 ; 高喜吉
2005
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword三峡库区 开县 生态承载力 景观格局 土地资源承载力 人居适宜性 生态足迹
Abstract区域生态承载力是可持续发展评价的一种重要方法,是可持续发展体系的重要组成部分。通过对生态承载力的测算,可以确定区域现状偏离可持续发展的程度,为确保区域可持续发展制定对策提供依据。论文以三峡大坝建设前后库区景观格局变化为切入点,以开县为研究区,从土地承载力,生态足迹,人居适宜性等方面,分析研究了区域生态承载力状况,以为三峡大坝建设后政策制定和经济发展提供科学依据,结论如下:1.景观分析表明:无论淹没前后,研究区林地和灌木景观均占总面积的80%左右,是区域内主导景观类型。淹没后,水体景观类型优势度增加,其他各类型平均斑块而积均有不同程度下降,表明淹没将导致景观破碎性程度上升,空间异质性增大。2.计算表明:175米蓄水后,多数景观指数发生变化,但是变化的幅度不大,这与淹没区面积占开县总面积的比例小有关。但当同时考虑到社会经济因素的影响时,这种变化又会带来广泛的效应。因为淹水区域原本是当地政治经济的中心区域,这些区域的被水淹没将彻底改变开县原有的经济布局,产生长远的影响。3.计算表明:淹没前开县的人口承载量,在营养标准一水平下,能够承载188.1万人,在营养标准二水平下,能够承载172.9万人;在营养标准三水平下,能够承载146.2万人。开县在175米淹没状况下的人口承载量,在营养标准一水平下,能够承载183.7万人;在营养标准二水平下,能够承载168.9万人;在营养标准三水平下,能够承载142.9万人。开县在180米淹没状况下的人口承载量,在营养标准一水平下,能够承载181.8万人;在营养标准二水平下,能够承载167.2万人;在营养标准三水平下,能够承载141.4万人。4.生物足迹帐户分析表明,近十年来开县生物帐户足迹呈稳步上升之势;化石能源帐户分析表明,开县能源足迹不稳定,可能的原因有二:一是能源利用率有较大的提高;二是部分统计数据与实际情况有一定出入。总体来看,开县人均生态足迹变化趋势与近十年人均生物资源帐户足迹相似,总体呈稳步上升之势,主要是因为生物资源帐户所占比重较大,致使其他变化为其掩盖。5.从户的角度来看,户均人数成逐步下降趋势,户均耕地、草地、建筑足迹仍稳步上升,但上升幅度不大。6.从2003年看,开县生态足迹略低于西部地区平均水平(1.17hm2),生态赤字高出西部平均水平85%,生态承载能力则显著低于西部平均水平,表明开县处于较强的不可持续状态。7.万元GDP足迹分析表明,1994~2003年开县资源利用率提高了64%。尽管开县资源利用率显著提高,但与同期其他地区相比,是西部十二省平均值的1.19倍,更是全国平均值的1.59倍。生态占用率分析表明,开县的生态占有率总体成上升趋势,对生态环境压力正逐步增大。8.人居适宜性分析表明:人居适宜性评价体系应从地形地貌、气候要素、资源察赋、环境变异四个方面着手。从自然角度看,开县是较适宜地区,但在地貌地形和环境变异方面存在限制。如果引入社会经济因素,仅以人均耕地为例,则根据"木桶原理",开县成为不适宜居住区。9.总体来看,开县处于不可持续发展状态,因此,从应该控制人口,提高人口素质,优化景观格局,防止水土流失,发展高效生态农业等方面着手,提高开县生态承载力,以实现可持续发展。
Other AbstractRegional ecological carrying capacity play an important role in estimating the sustainable development, and it is the main part in the sustainable development system. By calculating the ecological carrying capacity, it can be estimated the degree that the regional actuality departure the sustainable development, and then it can be used as the reference to establish the strategy for sustainable development. On the basis of landscape variety in the whole course of the Three Gorges dam building, we choose Kai County as the study area to analyze regional ecological carrying capacity in land carrying capacity, ecological footprint, suitability of human settlements. It will provide the scientific reference for setting down the policy and developing economy after the Three Gorges darn is completed. The conclusions are following: 1. The analysis of landscape variety states: forest landscape and shrubbery landscape is in the dominant status as 80 percent of the whole area whether submerged or not. After submerged, water landscape will increase. In addition, the average patch area of other types will reduce in variety degree, which states that the submerging will promote the fragmentation and interspace heterogeneity. 2. After calculated, the conclusions is following: after 175meter submerge, a majority of landscape index express the little range of wave because the submerged area is only a little part of Kai County. If the society and economic factors is also concerned, the wave will bring into the wide effect. For the submerged region is the Kai County's politic and economic center area, Kai county's economic will be long-term impacted. 3. Calculating states: before subermerged, under the nutrition standard I, the Kai County population carrying capacity is 1.881 million; and under the standard II and III, the capacity is 1.729 million and 1.462 million respectively. When 175 meters surbmerged, under the three standard, the Kai County population carrying capacity will respectively be 1.837 million, 1.689 million, and 1.429 million. When 180 meters submerged, under the tliree standard, the Kai County population carrying capacity will respectively be 1.818 million, 1.672 million, and 1.414 million. 4. The analysis of ecological footprint account shows that: in the recent ten years, Kai county biological account footprint increase with steadily, and the fossil energy account is unsteadiness. There are two possible reasons that is energy utilization rate improving greatly and data error. In the whole, Kai county's ecological footprint is similar to biological resource account's footprint, which increases steadily. It is because the biological source account take a so much proportion that other variety is covered. 5. Although the family number decreases steadily, and family plantation, meadow, and building footprint still increase with steady little steps. 6. In 2003, Kai county's ecological footprint is under the average level of West region (1.17hm2), ecological deficit 85 precent above the average level of Western's, ecological carrying capacity is much lower the Western's. That states Kai county is in an unsustainable development situation. 7. The analysis often thousand GDP's footprint states that: from 1994-2003 Kai county's resource utilization rate increases 64 percent. Although it increasing gradually, it is 1.19 times of Western's, and 1.59 times of nation's. According to the analysis of ecological occupying rate, with the increasing of it environment is enduring the great pressure. 8. The analysis of the suitability of human settlement shows that: The evaluated system should be studied from four aspects-topography, climate, resources, and environmental variance. Only evaluating the nature position, Kai County can be considered as a good region to inhabit except some shortage in topography and environmental variance. However, when social and economic factors are considered also, it will not be adapted to inhabit. 9. In the whole, Kai County is in unsustainable situation. In order to increase the ecological carrying capacity and realize the sustainable development, Kai county's government should control the- population, improve the population stuff, optimize landscape, and develop the high-effective ecological agriculture, etc.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/6203
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘孝宝. 基于景观格局的三峡库区生态承载力研究——以开县为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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