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高寒高原生态脆弱性与生态安全研究——以西藏高原为例
Language中文
王小丹
Thesis Advisor钟祥浩
2005
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword生态脆弱性 生态安全 评价方法 空间格局 地理信息系统 西藏高原
Abstract论文的研究工作主要围绕两个核心展开,即构建高寒高原生态安全评价理论和探讨西藏高原生态安全特征与空间格局。针对高寒高原的独特的自然环境条件和特殊的生态与环境问题,论文以生态安全的基本概念和内涵为研究的切入点,提出区域生态安全的评价应包括:生态脆弱性评价、生态系统服务功能安全重要性评价和人类扰动体系影响评价。在此基础上,将这三方面的评价结果进行综合与集成,来认识和把握区域生态安全状况,以及在空间尺度上的变化规律与特点。本文以西藏高原这一典型区域为例,在已有研究工作的基础上,采用了地理学与生态学相结合、定量分析与专家集成相结合、3S技术与数学模型相结合的方法,对生态安全评价方法给予了全面的分析、阐述,并对西藏高原的生态安全问题提出了一些看法与见解。在此过程中,还针对'西藏高原的自然环境特征、社会经济状况及由此所形成的环境与发展中的基本问题进行了分析;对于研究所涉及的几个主要研究领域的国内外研究背景和进展进行了系统的总结,并对有关的基本概念也做了详细探讨,以作为论文研究的理论基础和研究背景。研究得出的主要结论和基本认识可归纳为如下几点:(1)对高寒高原生态安全认识与评价应包括三个方面的内容:生态脆弱性、生态系统服务功能和外界扰动影响;(2)生态脆弱性是评价生态系统状态安全的重要指标,可以通过生物生存的物质与能量基础的稳定特性,以及反映自然地表过程与生态过程对外力作用的响应速度(敏感性)来综合表达;(3)西藏高原生态不安全区主要分布在(1)昌都北部区;(2)拉萨市除当雄县之外的大部分区域;(3)日喀则东部区;(4)山南东北部区;(5)那曲地区索县和那曲县部分区域。较不安全区主要分布在昌都地区南部、拉萨市当雄县东南部、那曲地区东部、山南地区中部和北部、日喀则地区雅鲁藏布江中上游、朋曲流域以及岗巴、定结雨影区。(封应建立西藏高原生态安全调控体系建设,内容包括:生态安全组织管理系统、生态安全规划、决策与建设管理系统、生态安全监测、预警、监督和评估系统等。(5)应进一步开展高原区域经济发展与生态安全祸合定量关系以及生态安全保障机制的深入研究,预测高原生态系统未来变化方向以及人类主动应对的途径与措施。探索国家高原生态公园建设在青藏高原区域可持续发展与全面建设小康社会的作用和新的发展模式,开拓高原脆弱生态区域资源利用、生态保护与经济社会和谐发展的新思路。
Other AbstractThe Tibetan Plateau is known for its high altitude and diverse ecosystem. Recent studies show that eco-degradation induced by human activities has played important roles to affect regional sustainable development in the area. However, there are few studies focusing on the relationships between eco-vulnerability and eco-security which provide an integrated assessment of the driving forces and consequences. Some concepts of eco-vulnerability and eco-security have been made in the dissertation. To find the spatial characteristics of unhealthy eco-area on the Tibetan Plateau, a method to estimate the classes of eco-security has been proposed. The three aspects, i.e. ecosystem state, service function, and effects of human activities, related to assessing ecological security were integrated. Datum and the derived results from the three aspects, are integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS). The techniques developed at the plot scale are used both to prime and to assess the regional scale measures as they are developed. All data are managed in a GIS which facilitates access to the information and enables it to be updated in a timely fashion. The GIS also enhances data analysis, increasing the interpretability of the data, by enabling cross analysis procedures and various classifications to be performed. This dissertation has developed a methodological reference framework, for evaluating ecological security states. Using the method, the eco-security states was assessed in the Tibetan Plateau. The results indicate that the classes of eco-security are significantly different in various geographical unites. The ecosystems distributing in the northwestern region have kept better than those in the southeastern region on the Tibetan Plateau. Human and livestock population densities, geomorphology, altitude, climate and natural and anthropogenic vegetation types were highly discriminatory. Human pressure had more impact on ecological security than natural processes. The main factor to induce ecological degradation is the increase of human activities.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/6206
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王小丹. 高寒高原生态脆弱性与生态安全研究——以西藏高原为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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