IMHE OpenIR  > 成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
山区道路工程毁损典型土地的退化与修复研究
Alternative TitleDegradation and Rehabilitation of Land Damaged by Road Construction in Mountainous Area
Language中文
徐佩
Thesis Advisor何毓蓉
2005
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline土壤学
Keyword四川 道路工程 土壤退化 修复
Abstract我国实施西部大开发的重点任务之一就是加快基础设施的建设.仅四川2000年就投资1700亿元修建交通设施以解决"蜀道难"的问题。当道路网络给人类社会带来巨大效益的同时,道路工程对自然景观和生态系统的干扰、破坏、等各种负面影响也在不断加大,而这种影响长期以来被人们忽视。尤其是四川地处于第一级青藏高原和第二级长江中下游平原的过渡带,降雨量大,地质破碎,泥石流、滑坡群及地层断裂带较多,加之广泛出露极易风化的紫色泥页岩,所建公路的布线主要分布于峡谷及沿河谷地带,加重水土流失,导致环境退化。缺乏保护环境意识的道路工程,引发沿线土壤退化问题应当引起重视,对其开展整治和生态恢复已刻不容缓。川藏公路(318国道)是西部山区代表性的重大道路工程,其跨越多个不同地质地貌单元和结构、功能各异的生态区段。本研究选定川藏公路名山一雅安一天全段沿线作为重点研究区域,该研究区地形陡峭,地质复杂,年降雨量大,生态环境脆弱,土壤易发生退化。采用空间景观和土壤形态系列比较法,选择与研究区相同或相近景观的未受人类活动影响的同类土壤作为对照,对比道路工程建设前后土地毁损区土壤的诊断层、诊断特性及其土壤系统分类,以及土壤的理化、生物变化,探讨道路工程影响下典型区土壤退化特征及其退化机制;旨在为道路工程土地毁损区的生态恢复与重建提供科学依据。研究结果表明:1)道路工程毁损土地的土壤类型退化具有突变性,根据定量的土壤系统分类可看出土壤诊断层和诊断特性都发生了变化,由复杂、高级到简单、低级,土壤类型也由多样化向单一化发展。2)毁损地段土壤性状发生了明显改变,表现为土壤物理性、营养性和生物性退化。其中土壤出现紧实化、粗骨化或粘重化等物理退化特征;土壤有机质和氮素明显下降,土壤养分贫化;在理化性质退化的同时伴随着生物性退化,土壤微生物和酶活性、微生物量碳氮不同程度减少,且与土壤有机质、全氮呈显著正相关。3)川藏公路建设工程实施于脆弱和极易受损、破坏的生态系统背景之中,是人类活动对生态环境高强度的作用过程。生态环境脆弱是土壤退化的重要外部因素。工程人为的扰动破坏土壤层构造和土壤特性,产生对水土流失的激发作用、山地灾害的诱发效应以及森林覆盖率和生物多样性的减少是道路工程沿线土壤退化的主要成因。4)结合前人研究,退化土壤的修复可采用生态恢复技术,包括土地复垦技术、生物环境工程技术和路域景观恢复工程技术等。同时要注重区域综合治理,包括前期工程设计的生态学意识,建立和发展道路稳定平衡的生态系统、道路林网系统以及道路复合农林型持续系统
Other AbstractOne of the important tasks to implement large-scale development in Western China is to speed up the construction of infrastructure. The total investment in the construction of traffic systems in 2000 reached as high as RMB 170 billion yuan in Sichuan province with an attempt to solve the problem of "Traffic Inaccessibility in Sichuan". While the road network has brought about huge benefits to human society, the adverse impacts of road development on environment such as disturbance and destruction of natural landscape and ecosystems have become more and more obvious, And unfortunately, such adverse impacts have long been neglected. This is particularly serious in Sichuan province because this province is located in the transitional zone between the first-grade Qinzang Plateau and the second-grade Yangtze River Mid-Lower Reaches Plain, where rainfall is plenty, geological fragmentation is serious, and debris flow and landslide groups are of extensive occurrence, and there have developed a large number of fault zones. In addition, purple argillaceous shales, which are easily weatherable, extensively expose in the region As the rood construction takes place mainly in the valleys or along the valley zones, it encourages water loss and soil erosion, leading to the degradation of environment. Ignorance of environmental protection in road or highway construction will cause soil degradation along the road construction line. Great attention should be paid to this problem, and urgent work should be undertaken on the control of soil degradation and eco-rehabilitation of degraded soils owing to road construction. The Sichuan-Xizang (Tibet) highway (National Highway No. 318) is a representative of important road projects in the mountainous areas of western China, which crosses different geological and morphological units, and ecological areas and segments with different structures and functions. The Mingshan-Ya'an-Tianquan segment of the Sichuan-Xizang highway was selected as the key area of this study. This study area is characterized by steep landform, complicated geology, abundant rainfall, vulnerable environment and easy soil degradation. By employing the space landscape and soil morphological series comparative method, and selecting the same type of soil that has developed in the area with identical or similar landscape to that of the study area, but unaffected by anthropogenic activities as acontrol, we evaluated the diagnostic soil horizons, diagnostic features and soil system classification in the area, and the physico-chemical and biochemical variations of soils, where soils had been damaged during and after road project construction. We also investigated the characteristics and mechanism of soil degradation in a typical area under the influence of road engineering construction with an attempt to provide the scientific basis for ecological rehabilitation and reconstruction in the geologically destroyed and damaged area due to road engineering construction. The results from this study are summarized below : 1) The degradation of soils in the destroyed and damaged areas due to road engineering construction is of mutability. In accordance with the systematic classification of soils on a quantitative basis, it can be seen clearly that the soil . diagnostic horizons and diagnostic features have changed from complex and . top-grade to simple and low-grade, with a reduction in diversity of soil type . 2) Obvious changes have taken place in the properties of soils in the destroyed and damaged segments, as mirrored by the degradation of physical properties, trophicity and biological features of soils. More noticeably, soils displayed comparability, coarse aggregation or high viscosity-density and other physical degradation phenomena with low contents of organic matter, nitrogen in soil other soil nutrients The degradation of physico-chemical properties of soil was accompanied by biodegradation and the reduction of soil microorganisms and enzyme activity. The microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen that were significantly and positively correlated with organic matter and total nitrogen in soil were decreased to varying extent. 3) The project of Sichuan-Xizang highway was implemented in a ecosystem background vulnerable to damage and destroy. It is process in which human activities have most strongly influenced the eco-environment. Vulnerability of the eco-environment is an important external factor, leading to soil degradation. In road engineering construction, the structures and characteristic features of soil layers have been artificially interfered and destroyed, thus giving an impetus to water loss and soil erosion, and causing induced effects of mountain hazards, as well as the reduction of forest coverage percentage and the destruction of bio-diversity. All these are the leading factors responsible for the degradation of soils along the line of road engineering construction. 4) In combination with the findings of previous studies, the eco-rehabilitation techniques can be employed to rehabilitate the degraded soil, including land re-tillage technique, bio-environmental engineering technology, road-domain landscape rehabilitation technique, etc. Considerable attention should be paid to the comprehensive management of heavily affected areas. This includes the ecological consciousness of early-phase engineering design, the establishment of stable and balanced, ecological system in the construction/development of roads and highways, the construction of forest network system along the roads, and the sustainable development system of composite agroforestry along roads and highways.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/6208
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
山区发展研究中心
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
徐佩. 山区道路工程毁损典型土地的退化与修复研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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