IMHE OpenIR  > 成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
岷江上游泥石流灾害及防治模式研究
Alternative TitleApproaches on the disaster and controlling model of debris flow in the upper reaches of the Mingjiang River
Language中文
孟国才
Thesis Advisor王士革
2005
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword泥石流 灾害 风险管理 防治模式 模型 岷江上游
Abstract泥石流是岷江上游地区常见的一种自然灾害现象,它已成为制约该区经济发展的重要因素之一。随着该区经济的迅速发展,水电产业及旅游业得以快速增一长,在泥石流等山地灾害危险区域内的生产和工程活动也在急剧扩大,泥石流的危害也日益增强。因此,为保证21世纪我国西部大开发战略的实施,加强崛江上游地区环境保护与管理的力度,研究泥石流灾害的特征及其防治模式,为该区域生态环境保护、减灾防灾体系规划和经济建设服务意义十分重大。本文通过野外实地考察、资料收集、文献分析及数理统计方法运用等,对以下几个方面的内容作了初步研究:(1)对泥石流形成的环境背景条件进行了系统的分析。泥石流形成的环境背景主要包括地形地貌、地质构造、气象水文、植被土壤和人为活动因素等。研究表明,自然环境因素是泥石流暴发的主因,暴雨及不合理的人为活动是诱因。(2)探讨了研究区泥石流的类型、分布特征、危害特征、活动规律及发展趋势。分析表明,研究区泥石流主要是暴雨一沟谷型一粘性一自然泥石流,其分布主要受地形地貌、断裂带、地层岩性及人类活动等因素控制。(3)在总结泥石流灾害防治的历史经验教训及洪水治理经验的基础上,提出了新的泥石流防灾减灾策略,这就是对泥石流灾害进行管理,调整人与泥石流的关系。由此提出了"防御泥石流"转向"泥石流管理"的当代泥石流治理新理念和新的防灾减灾战略理论,即"综合自然灾害风险管理"。(4)在研究崛江上游及邻近地区已建泥石流防治工程的基础上,根据泥石流的危害对象、自身属性、流域的环境背景条件、保护对象的重要性和灾损程度以及治理目的等,分别提出在确保安全可靠之前提下经济合理并能充分发挥其治理效益的不同类型的泥石流防治模式。在这些防治模式中,既考虑每一种单项措施的独立性和有效性,使之充分发挥其独特的效益,又要考虑各项措施之间的相互联系和功能的协同,以便取得最佳效益。(5)利用层次分析法建立泥石流治理方案优化模型,将专家制定方案的过程用模型来进行模拟,并应用模型对黑水芦花沟泥石流防治方案进行优化评判。
Other AbstractDebris flows are widely distributed in the upper reaches of the Mingjiang River, where debris flows frequently occur and seriously affect the economic development and the safety of human lives and properties in the region. The growth of population and economic development have done severe damages to the ecological environment and intensified debris flow hazards. Effectively preventing and controlling debris flows and reducing their damage are important for safeguarding the sustainable economic development and inhabitants in the studied region. By using the theory of debris flows management to control of debris flow, the following contents and results are studied and achieved respectively. (1) The watershed and the basic characteristics of debris flow and the upper reaches of the Mingjinag River are studied. The great amount of loose solid matters located on the steep slope are the basic condition for the debris flow formation and the rain-storm with high intensity or heavy rain after long-time rainfall are the factor for triggering of debris flow. (2) The regularities of debris flow distribution in the upper reaches of Mingjing River are controlled by geological structures, stratum lithology, topography and geomorphology, hydrology, meteorology and other natural factors, which play a leading role in development of debris flow and the human activities have a certain influences on debris flow. The classification of debris flow is a part of the studies on the basic regularities and the criteria for the depth and process of theoretical researches on them. The main purpose of debris flow classification is to study the formational mechanism, motional laws, danger risks evaluating and controlling chooses of debris flows. (3) Current countermeasures against debris flow hazards are either structural or non-structural in natures. The structural measures are composed of check dams, levees and channels and the non-structural measures include warning and forecasting systems, evaluating systems reinforced buildings and better land use. At the beginning, structures were designed the same as ordinary hydraulic works due to lack of understanding on the nature of debris flows. Afterwards, through repeated tests, some engineering structures have been developed gradually. They are adapted to the properties of debris flows, prevention work efficiency and engineering cost. The integrated natural disaster risk management has become an important strategy and model in contemporary disaster management. (4) Countermeasures against debris flow suitable for the conditions of the upper reaches of the Mingjiang River area are formulated according to characteristics of national wide debris flow hazards, needs of national construction and economic states. (5) To control debris flow, the scheme is mainly given by experts on their practical experience all the years, few people knows how the experts educed the special scheme. Yet, in some occasions, the basic scheme should be brought forward without expert on the spot. A AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) model was built to simulate the thinking route of the experts, calculate on the model and find the most suited scheme to different debris flow gully.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/6217
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孟国才. 岷江上游泥石流灾害及防治模式研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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