IMHE OpenIR  > 成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
长江上游典型区不同林地土壤结构-水分特性及生态环境效应
Alternative TitleThe Soil Structural and Water Properties and its' Eco-environmental Effects under Different Forests in Typical Regions of upper Reaches of the Yangtze River
Language中文
张保华
Thesis Advisor何敏蓉
2004
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword长江上游 森林类型 土壤结构-水分 土壤侵蚀率 贡嘎山 盐亭
Abstract土壤层是影响森林生态系统功能的关键要素,土壤结构性特别是团聚体及稳定性对土壤渗透性、持水性、抗蚀性等有直接作用。本文运用土壤物理学、土壤矿物和微形态学、森林生态学、分形学等基本理论和红外光谱、X-射线衍射等现代仪器分析方法,研究了长江上游亚高山天然林和丘陵人工林土壤结构、水分特性、生态环境状况,揭示了土壤结构对水分调蓄功能、土壤侵蚀防治的作用机制。取得以下具有一定创新性的结果:(1)土壤分类是土壤学的基础性工作,尤其是贡嘎山亚高山地区尚未开展土壤系统分类研究。按照《中国土壤系统分类》,将研究区土壤分为4个诊断层和12项诊断特性,灰土(C)、雏形土(M)、新成土(N)3个土纲,5个亚纲,8个土类,9个亚类。并首次提出了冰债物岩性特征和泥石流堆积物岩性特征的判定指标,在推进中国土壤系统分类进展上有重要的意义。(2)部分土壤结构指标单项比较、主成分一聚类分析土壤结构综合评价表明天然林土壤结构优于人工林、成熟林或过熟林优于次生林、混交林优于纯林。主成分一聚类分析对森林土壤结构性的综合评价比部分结构指标的单项比较置信度更高。影响土壤团聚体形成和稳定性的主要因子为贡嘎山研究区土壤细粉粒和粘粒、富里酸等有机物质、土壤交换性阳离子;盐亭研究区为粉粒、Fed、富里酸等有机物质。结合土壤腐殖质红外光谱、粘粒矿物x-射线衍射和微形态分析,给出了团聚体形成和稳定的临时性团聚体、亚稳态团聚体、稳定性团聚体的形成机制和进化模式。(3)土壤饱和渗透速率、土壤容贮水、低吸力段土壤持水性和蒸发特性等土壤水分性能均明显表现出天然林优于人工林、成熟林或过熟林优于次生林、混交林优于纯林。贡嘎山研究区土壤水分含量长期动态变化表现为林地变化幅度比迹地小、土壤上层水分含量变化幅度大。设计试验并探索了林木根圈微区土壤水分动态,观测表明主根区土壤水分变化剧烈、等值线密集,主根区土壤结构和持水性能相对较好;根圈土壤水分短期动态变化的研究弥补了目前土壤水分动态研究均为林木群体和季节性长期动态的不足。(4)定量揭示了研究区土壤结构和有机质含量对土壤低吸力段持水性能、饱和渗透速率等水分的影响,尤其是分形理论的应用,可以为简化区域性经验水文模型奠定基础,同时明确了土壤结构稳定性、水分性质、有机质含量等在土壤侵蚀防治中的作用。(5)通过简单易行的林地土壤结构强化改良试验,探索了川中紫色丘陵区人工林下土壤结构和肥力快速恢复、提高水土保持性能的有效措施,结果表明短期内以覆盖猪粪效果相对较好。对人工林地土壤退化防治和培肥提供了有益的启示。
Other AbstractSoil is the key factor affecting forest ecosystem function. Soil structure properties especially aggregates and stability affect infiltration, water content, and anti-erosion directly. Using basic theories of soil physics, soil mineralogy and micro-morphology, forest ecology, and fractal, as well as modern apparatus analysis of infrared spectrum and X-radial diffraction, the properties of soil structure, water and eco-environment of sub-alpine natural forests and hill artificial forests in upper reaches of the Yangtze River were studied, and the mechanisms of soil structure affecting water and their functions in anti-erosion were also researched. The results with some degree of innovation were showed as follow: Soil classification is the groundwork of soil sciences and is of special importance for sub-alpine of Gongga Mountain in where soil taxonomy hasn't been studied. According to Keys to Chinese Soil Taxonomy (3 edition), 4 diagnostic horizons, 12 diagnostic characteristics, 3 Orders of Spodosols, Cambosols, and primosols, 5 Suborders, 8 Groups, and 9 Subgroups, were classified. The requirements for Lithologic character of debris flow deposits and Lithologic character of glacial deposits were firstly proposed. Comparing among some soil structural indexes and synthesis evaluation of soil struc ture using principal components & cluster method showed that the soil structure properties of natural forests, mature forests or over mature forests, and mixed forest, are better than that of artificial forests, secondary forests, and pure forests, respectively. The latter method has more creditability. The main factors affecting soil aggregates and its stability are fine silt, clay, fulvic acid, total organic materials, and cation exchange capacity in Gongga Mountain, and silt, Fed, fulvic acid, and total organic materials in Yanting. Coefficient analysis between soil aggregates and relative factors combined with infrared spectrum of soil humus, X-radial diff raction of clays, and soil micro-morphologic properties, the aggregates forming and stability mechanism and evolution model of provisional aggregates, sub-stable aggregates, and stable aggregates were proposed. (1) The soil water characteristics, such as saturated infiltration, water containing, water holding within low suction, and evaporation of natural forests, mature forests or over mature forests, and mixed forest, are distinctively better than those of artificial forests, secondary forests, and pure forests, respectively. The seasonal water dynamic of Gongga Mountain showed that water content of clear cutting varies within wider extent than that of forests, and top soils varies wider than deeper soils. Experiment exploring for rhizosphere soil water dynamics was designed and the observed results showed that soil water content varies acutely with dense isoline and the structural and water holding properties in there are better. The study on rhizosphere soil water dynamics made up the shortage of soil water dynamics researches that are all on whole forest or seasonally. (4) The quantitative study on the influences of soil structural properties and total organic material content on soil water characteristics, such as water holding within low suctions and saturated infiltration, especially the usage of fractal dimension, can be used in simplifying regional experienced forests-hydrological models. The function of soil structure stability, water characteristics, and organic material content on anti-erosion were also studied explicitly. (5) The efficiency measures of soil structure and fertility reconstruction to improve soil and water conservation in purple hilly areas were explored through simple intensified soil structure ameliorative experiments, and the results showed that pig manure coverage method has relative better effects within short term.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/6236
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张保华. 长江上游典型区不同林地土壤结构-水分特性及生态环境效应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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