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云南东川典型泥石流沟谷综合治理效益分析
Alternative TitleAnalysis of Benefits of Comprehensive Mitigation Measures against the Debris flow in Dongchuan, Yunnan
Language中文
陈晓艳
Thesis Advisor王道杰
2013
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword泥石流 综合防治 效益分析 优化配置 区域特征
Abstract本研究选取云南东川境内蒋家沟、深沟和阿旺流域为研究对象,结合各区(形成区、流通区和堆积区)危害特征和防治重点,探讨了针对不同保护对象、具有既突出重点又兼顾全局的区域层次性特点的效益分析方法;并通过野外调查和室内实验,以生物工程措施为重点、结合岩土工程措施,对泥石流综合防治措施效益进行了分析研究。主要取得以下研究成果: 1、建立了生物工程措施效益指标体系,并重点分析了植物群落结构效应、拦沙控沙效应、蓄水保水效应和经济效益基于灾害防治学以及生态学原理和方法,提出了生物工程措施效益分析指标体系,并在此基础上,通过有无对比和空间代替时间的方法,分析了不同地表类型的效益差异。分析表明:(1)生物工程措施能够提高土壤含水量,土壤含水量为森林>草地>坡地,分别为 37.85%,31.15%,16.72~24.78%;生物工程措施能够有效的截留雨水,涵养水源,植被较好的小流域其单位面积产流量明显较少,减少率达55%,该效益在晴天比雨天表现明显;(2)生物工程措施能够提高土壤的抗侵蚀能力,其抗侵蚀能力为灌木>草本>森林>台地,抗冲系数依次为4.55 L/g、4.33 L/g、1.49 L/g、0.64L/g;(3)生物工程措施能够增加植被覆盖度,增加群落层次结构,提高群落生物多样性,增加森林材积量,其效益表现为森林>灌丛>草地。 2、分析了岩土工程措施效益体现,并对岩土工程与生物工程措施协同优化配置进行探索岩土工程的防治效益主要为拦蓄泥沙、抬高侵蚀基准面、引水灌溉和拦淤造田。通过对蒋家沟长期监测得:岩土工程能够改善微地貌,沟谷形状由V型向U型发展,的侵蚀基准面抬高,由海拔1063m抬高到1079.9m,纵坡降逐渐减小的趋势;大漆树支沟谷坊共拦蓄泥沙量约2.87×104m3 ,梅子树沟谷坊共拦蓄泥沙1.59×104m3。生物工程措施与于岩土工程措施协同优化配置主要表现为:提升减灾功能,促进工程维护功能,增加景观功能三点。 3、结合泥石流沟谷的区域特征,建立了一套针对不同保护对象的防治效益指标体系泥石流沟谷分为形成区、流通区和堆积区,鉴于针对于不同保护对象的泥石流防治工程中,其防治效益在形成区和流通区较为相似,差异主要体现在堆积区这一特性,以此作为参考,建立一套既突出重点又兼顾全局的区域层次性效益指标体系。 4、对泥石流综合防治效益进行评价将泥石流综合防治的效益分为减灾效益、经济效益、生态效益和社会效益。用森林面积作为生态效益的指标,用受益人的人数作为社会效益的指标,将简化的指标等效转化为货币形式,统一单位,进行经济价值评价,并取得了较好的评价效果。
Other AbstractThis study selected Jiang Jiagou valley, Shen Gou valley and A Wang valley in Dongchuan as the research object. In combination with the Hazard characteristics and prevention focus of the three areas (Forming area, circulation area and accumulation area) in debris flow gully, discussing the focus and level of global areas benefit analysis method, and focusing on the ecological engineering measures. Combined with engineering measures, this paper analyzes the comprehensive prevention and control measures efficiency of debris flow. The main results are as follows: 1. Discusses the biological engineering measures benefit index system, and analyses the effect of plant community structure, block sand control effect, reservoir water effect and economic benefits. Based on ecology theory and method, this paper puts forward that benefit analysis index system of the secondary biological engineering measures. And on this basis, through the with and without comparison method and the space instead of time method, analyzes the different benefits of different surface types. The results show that: Biological engineering measures can improve soil moisture content, the number is 37.85% in forest land, 31.15% in grass land, and varied 16.72~24.78% in slope farmlands; the measures can effectively intercept and conserve the rain, basin with good vegetation can reduce the runoff 55% than basin with bad vegetation; Biological engineering measures can effectively improve soil resistance to erosion ability, shrubs lands > grass lands > forest lands > platform farmlands,the coefficient ofsoil anti-scouribility of them are 4.55 L/g, 4.33 L/g, 1.49 L/g, 0.64L/g; Biological engineering measures significantly increasing vegetation coverage, community structure, species diversity and forest volume quantity; the benefit of mixed wood is most obvious. 2. Analyzes the geotechnical engineering measures to benefit, explore in geotechnical engineering and bioengineering measures to optimize the configuration. Geotechnical engineering of prevention and control benefits are mainly held sediment, raise the base level of erosion, water diversion for irrigation and blocking silt from land. Through long-term monitoring of Jiangjiagou Ravine, the results shows: Geotechnical engineering can improve microrelief and valleys from V to U shape, the base level of erosion, from an altitude of 1063 m up to 1079.9 m, longitudinal gradient decreases gradually; the block sediment of Daxishu is 2.87×104m3, of Meizishu is 1.59×104m3. Biological engineering and geotechnical engineering measures mainly for optimizing configuration mainly shows in: Improve disaster mitigation function, promote the engineering maintenance function, and increase the function of landscape. 3. Combined with the feature of debris flow gully area, set up a prevention benefit index system according to different protection object. Divide debris flow gully into forming area, circulation area and accumulation area. Given for different protection object, prevention projects of debris flow prevention and control of its benefits in formation and circulation area is relatively similar, difference is mainly embodied in the accumulation zone of the properties. Creating a focused and gradation index system of benefit global areas. 4. Evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive prevention and treatment of landslide Debris flow the benefit of the comprehensive prevention and control can be divided into disaster reduction, economic benefits, ecological benefits and social benefits. With the forest area as the ecological benefit indexes, With the number of the beneficiary as the index of social benefits, Convert index of simplified equivalent to cash, Unified unit, evaluate economic value and obtain good valuation results .
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/6955
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈晓艳. 云南东川典型泥石流沟谷综合治理效益分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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