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泥石流拦砂坝溢流口过流能力实验研究
Alternative TitleExperimental study on discharge capacity of spillway of check dam
Language中文
林雪平
Thesis Advisor陈永波 ; 游勇
2013
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline防灾减灾工程及防护工程
Keyword拦砂坝 泥石流 溢流口 过流能力 流量系数 坝后回淤 回淤纵坡
Abstract拦砂坝是泥石流治理经常采用的工程措施之一,工程设计质量的优劣直接影响其防治作用。然而目前关于拦砂坝溢流口以及坝后回淤的设计多以设计者的经验来确定参数,缺乏足够的依据。因此,泥石流拦砂坝的溢流口过流能力以及坝后回淤,是当前迫切需要解决的关键问题。开展泥石流拦砂坝的溢流口过流能力及坝后回淤研究,对科学合理地组织实施泥石流灾害的防灾减灾具有重要现实和理论意义。论文采用理论分析和水槽实验等研究手段,主要对泥石流拦砂坝溢流口过流能力及坝后回淤两方面内容进行研究,得到了以下主要结果:1)通过理论分析建立了泥石流拦砂坝溢流口过流能力的参数计算方法,并在此基础上分析得出影响拦砂坝溢流口过流能力的主要因素包括:泥石流容重、沟道坡度、溢流口形状以及溢流口与沟道的相对位置关系;2)在拦砂坝溢流口参数计算式的推导过程中,提出了过流能力计算的关键计算参数—流量系数,结合室内水槽实验建立了流量系数的经验计算方法;3)通过室内水槽实验,得到不同影响因素下拦砂坝溢流口过流能力大小的变化规律。相同面积条件下不同溢流口形状的过流能力比较:矩形溢流口>梯形溢流口;深窄式溢流口>宽浅式溢流口>一般式溢流口。溢流口过流能力随泥石流容重的增加而减小,随沟道坡度的增加而增加,随相对沟道宽度的增加而增加;溢流口位置与沟道中心相对者大,溢流口位置与沟道中心偏离者小。4)通过理论分析建立了泥石流拦砂坝坝后回淤长度、厚度以及坡度的计算方法,还推导了坝后存在限制淤积物时的最大允许坝高的计算式;5)通过室内水槽实验,得到不同影响因素下坝后回淤的相关规律,主要包括: 坝后回淤长度随泥石流容重的增加而增加,随沟道坡度的增加而减小,随坝体高度的增加而增加。坝后回淤纵坡随泥石流容重的增加而增加,随沟道坡度的增加而减小,与坝体高度不存在明显的相关关系。
Other AbstractCheck-dam is prevalent countermeasure in debris flow preventing engineering, engineering design quality directly affects its preventive effect. But it still lacks sufficient theoretical basis in design for spillway and deposition in reservoir. In order to perfect the design method of check-dam, a series of flume experiments have been conducted to research the overflowing and sediment characteristics of check-dam. Therefore, the study on the discharge capacity of spillway and deposition in reservoir has an important practical and theoretical significance in organizing and implementing debris flow disaster prevention and reduction. By the means of flume experiments and theoretical analysis, primarily researching for the overflow outlet flow capacity of check-dam and dam siltation, the paper obtained the following main results:1) Establishing the parameter calculation methods of check-dam spillway’s overflow capacity through theoretical analysis, and based on that, the main factors of flow capacity of include: debris flow density, channel slope, spillway shape and the relative positional relationship between spillway and channel;2) In the derivation of parameter calculation formula of dam spillway, this paper proposed the critical calculation parameters—discharge coefficient, combined with the flume experiments, the article established the experience calculation method of discharge coefficient.3) The impact law of debris flow density, channel slope and shape and position of spillway of check dam can be mainly described as follows:The discharge capacity of different spillway shape: rectangular spillway> trapezoid spillway; deep and narrow type wide and shallow type>general type. With the channel slope and relative width increasing and density decreasing, discharge coefficient gradually increased. 4) Establishing the calculation method of check-dam siltation length, thickness and slope through theoretical analysis, and deriving the calculation formula of maximum allowable dam height when there is a limited structure in the reservoir;5) The impact law of debris flow density, channel slope and dam height can be mainly described as follows:The relationship between deposition length in reservoir and density、channel slope and dam height: with the density and dam height increasing and channel slope decreasing, deposition length gradually increased. The relationship between deposition slope in reservoir and density、channel slope and dam height: with the density increasing and channel slope decreasing, deposition slope gradually increased, and there is no relevant relationship between deposition slope and dam height.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7037
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
林雪平. 泥石流拦砂坝溢流口过流能力实验研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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